Paul van Eijk
Validated Lead Expert
B.1. Understanding of integrated and sustainable urban development:
As environmental engineer I finished a comprehensive doctoral research project on changing water management as part of urban renewal. The research was conducted at Delft University of Technology as part of the research programme of the Delft Interfaculty Research Centre - Sustainable Built Environment. The title of the Ph.D thesis is (2003): "Renewal with Water: a participative strategy for the urban environment". During my Ph.D research I was also coordinating the sustainable development of the city of Haarlem. By doing so I was able to do a plan-making action research in the day-to-day reality of recent urban renewal programmes. I experimented with design concepts and workshop methods in different contexts of urban renewal in different cities.
1 - Demonstrated more than 2 years of experience with integrated and sustainable urban development, through education and PhD programme 1998-2003 and partly work for the Province of Drenthe as strategic maanger of Dept. for spatial development, environment, agriculture, nature and water (2008-2013)
B.2. Understanding of exchange and learning processes at transnational level:
I participated in several international projects such as: PURE, Planning for Urban-rural River Environments 'Planning with Water'. The PURE project was a part of the Interreg IIIB North Sea program. In this project transnational learning was the driving force (UK, Sweden (Chalmers University), the Netherlands, Finland) especially focussed on spatial and sustainable development. As dean of the Academy of Architecture, Built Environment and Civil Engineering at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences in Groningen I was closely involved in setting up exchange programmes (education and research) for teachers, researchers and students. As strategic manager at the province of Drenthe (NL) it was my responsibility to organise the 10th ENCORE-conference in the northern part of the Netherlands. The ENCORE conferences (http://www.encoreweb.eu) are based on the principles of transnational learning of all kind of experiences of sustainable development and building alliances. In 2012 the theme was Soil, Energy and Climate Change.
1 - Provided one significant transnational activity that demonstrates understanding of exchange and learning processes at transnational level (PURE project, ENCORE)
B.3. Proficiency in English:
Level C1. As Ph.D candidate I wrote several English articles and I held presentations for example in Portland (Oregon, USA) and in (Dublin, Ireland). As lector (professor) at Van Hall Larenstein, University of Applied Sciences, the meetings of the Applied Research Group are in English. I give guest-lectures in English at Van Hall Larenstein, University of Applied Sciences for the domain Animals & Business, including recently for the course Eco-socio studies (March 2016). I am currently coaching students (M.Sc/B.Sc) from foreign countries and Ph.D students as well. The Ph.D students are Portuguese and our common language is English. I recently was the chairman of a session called Applied Research of Water Systems during the annual international conference of the Wetsus research institute (Leeuwarden, October 2015). As dean I am responsible for the development of an international network of knowledge institutes (China, Korea, Germany).
1 - proficient in English
Expertise for the design and delivery of transnational exchange and learning activities:
C.3.1. Ability to communicate complex concepts to non-English speakers:
I developed the Participative Strategy (PS). Participation is the result of intentional communication and direct interaction at the same time. In fact, the PS emerge complex concepts of the Guiding Principle Approach and the Soft Systems Method. - My English lectures are for students all over the world - I developed an animation of the guiding model Event Storage; making the invisible visible.
1 - Provided example that demonstrates ability to communicate complex concepts to non-English speakers
C.3.2. Ability to draw out, support the verbalization and documentation of knowledge and practice from participants:
I have very good experiences with the Guiding Principle Approach (GPA). The GPA actually is a tool to elaborate design-solutions for sustainable urban water systems. The GPA is evidence based, based on ecological principles and generates a common language for designers and all kind of other disciplines. The GPA brings knowledge into practice and is a guide for planners on interactive design. The GPA gives a clear direction to the substantive sustainable solutions in the design and exposes the connections between measures taken in practice. For the long term, it creates a supporting structure within which a programme and operational plans can be elaborated. Examples are: 1. My contribution to the 9th conference of the American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE in Portland Oregon USA (van Eijk, P., Changing Water Management in Urban Renewal in the Netherlands Ecological Modernization through a Participative Strategy. In: Global Solutions for Urban Drainage: pp. 1-15, 2002). The use of the guiding model Strategy of the two Networks in ‘Planning with Water’ of the EU-PURE project.
1 - Provided two examples (ASCE and PURE) that demonstrate the ability to draw out, support the verbalization and documentation of knowledge and practice from participants to enable comparison, exchange, peer review, etc
C.3.3. Ability to capture learning for participants to take away:
Basically during social learning processes it is essential to create conditions and to facilitate participants to learn from each other’s experiences and tacit knowledge (capacity building). These experiences and knowledge will be more explicit by their own stories or by their own demonstration projects. The main question is how they can contribute to sustainable development of (urban) water systems. The body of knowledge and skills are very important. It is my experience that participants (and students as well) take away (as learning outcome): • new networks with useful knowledge and contacts; • where to find more information (f.e. www.kennisportaal.nl); • awareness of different tools (such as guiding principles, approaches and strategies) that are available and that they are able to apply these tools in their own context (a learning-by-doing attitude) Examples are: 1. My input for the workshop ‘Drop by Drop; conserving Ireland’s Urban Water Resources’ in Dublin Ireland. See van Eijk (1999) Sustainable and Integrated Urban Water Management in the Netherlands, in proceedings of the workshop organised and published by The Dublin Urban Forum for Sustainable Development & The Environmental Institute, University College Dublin. 2. Recently my initiative as dean and host for the Climate Toolbox Experience Day held on march 27th 2014 in Groningen and my contributions to the international Wetsus-conferences in 2015 and in 2016 in Leeuwarden.
1 - Provided two examples that demonstrate the ability to capture learning for participants to take away
C.3.4. Ability to produce concise reports that incorporate good practices and policy messages:
Sustainable development means thinking in long terms by acting in short terms. Comprehensive sustainable urban renewal programmes are not finished within a couple of years. Therefore, it is necessary to hold on to collective memory by making the design steps explicit. Yes, it is important to produce reports. However, a drawing of a child or a statement made by an inhabitant or a small demonstration project can also support the policy makers preparing the decisions of politicians for the next steps.
0 - Provided less than two examples that demonstrate the ability to produce concise reports that incorporate good practices and policy messages
Summary Expertise for the design and delivery of transnational exchange and learning activities:
I developed the Participative Strategy (PS). Participation is the result of intentional communication and direct interaction at the same time. In fact, the PS merges the complex concepts of the Guiding Principle Approach and the Soft Systems Method. Participants are public and private representatives; professional and non-professional disciplines. The PS can easily be used in a transnational context. In essence the PS creates conditions for a trans-disciplinary learning process. I use the PS to generate a common language to achieve shared understanding among participants for their interests and for the design-solutions they interactively develop. Design-solutions which contribute to sustainable development of urban water systems by making the transnational social learning process explicit.
The expert is validated for C, demonstrating relevant expertise for the design and delivery of transnational exchange and learning activities. He is validated for C1 with maximum score, for C2 and C3 he scored 3 out of 4 (not validated only for 2.3 related to his ability to engage and mobilize stakeholders to use learning tools and for 3.4. as he did not demonstrate examples of producing concise reports that incorporate good practices and policy messages).
Theme / Policy:
Integrated Urban Renewal
D.1. Deep knowledge on the selected theme and related policy challenges, including up to date practice, research, etc.:
As policy maker, scientist and as a manager it was clear to me that slowly but surely, ‘integral’ and ‘sustainable’ have become the key concepts underlying the approach to urban water systems. Not only in the Netherlands. Ecologically responsible (or: sustainable) hydrological principles have been integrated into land use planning practice at the local level, and have been incorporated into policy documents. In the Netherlands from the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management and other government departments. The experiences to date form the basis for sustainable water systems in large greenfield developments. The question is whether this approach can also be used in the reconstruction of existing urban areas. Due to climate change (including heat stress), water management has become a major theme in spatial planning and urban renewal. This is not just a technical approach. Water retention, or water conservation, requires a spatial planning strategy based on the principles of integrated urban water management. Interdisciplinary co-operation is very important in finding sustainable solutions: decision makers have to deal with prevention, the potentials of different areas and interactive planning processes. Water is often the last item addressed in an urban plan. In the near future hydrological planning principles must from the start be integrated into the planning process through all the various plan scales.
1 - Demonstrated two years of experience in having deep knowledge on the selected theme and related policy challenges, including up to date practice, research, etc. (most relevant 2008-2014)
D.2. Ability to produce thematic inputs to feed in the learning process of in projects in which you have been involved:
60 to 95 % of the surface water in the Netherlands does not comply with the European Water Framework Directive on water resources (KRW). Yes, all efforts over the last 4 decades have had positive effects on water quality, but despite these positive effects organic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphates, the decline of the biodiversity and the morphology of our water systems are in many cases still in direct need of attention. The Netherlands wants to feed the world and forced by climate change a transition to a sustainable fresh water strategy is of pivotal importance. What are the dilemma’s of this transition and what scientific approach can cope with these dilemma’s? Water is a Top sector but this sector scores at a very low level when it comes to social innovation. 4 out of 5 innovations are not caused by new techniques but by new ways to co-operate and co-create. This is what we call a social innovation. At the same time inhabitants participate in all kinds of initiatives. The many new small scale sustainable energy corporations are the examples, maybe water corporations for-, with- and by- inhabitants will follow? However, by implementing our national water policy the government relies on an increasing capacity of self regulation in our society. Over the past 15 years, I was involved in all kind of projects on different scale levels for, with and by relevant participants. I experimented with the guiding principle approach (GPA) and a guiding model in particular (the strategy of the two networks) in real life practice (participative action research) in the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands and in Gothenburg in Sweden. A couple of examples are: 1. The theme: Tools for Interaction in Urban Planning. I worked together with Dutch parties on this theme with the municipality of Gothenburg and Chalmers University. See: van Eijk, Tjallingii & van den Top, Workshops for Sustainable Urban Development. In: Nordic Journal of Architectural Research, 2002. 2. In cooperation with public and private parties I was responsible for the ‘Ground-For-Change’ conference that was organized by the province of Drenthe in 2013. Scientists, board members, policy makers and entrepreneurs discussed the impact of climate change and the opportunities for climate adaptation and mitigation.
0 - Provided less than two valid example that demonstrate the ability to produce thematic inputs to feed in the learning process of in projects in which he has been involved. The examples provided are linked to water management and climate, not urban renewal.
D.3. Ability to produce concise reports that incorporate learning from exchange & learning activities, put forward good practice:
The transition to a sustainable water system is an environmental, spatial and social challenge. Several dilemmas influence this transition process, such as the technical versus system innovations, water versus spatial planning, as well as short term individual economic drivers versus long term common benefits. Challenges are investments in system innovations, the explicit integration of water and climate adaptation in urban renewal and spatial development of rural areas. For this, it is necessary to explain the applied scientific approach which was developed in the early nineties, and is still actively being used. Better known as the Guiding Principle Approach, this approach consists of spatial planning tools supporting processes of sustainable development of water systems. Since its development and by ‘’learning by doing’’ the GPA is continually developing itself with new experiences. Relevant examples of reports incorporating good practices and policy are: 1. My membership of the Substantive Guidance Commission of the comprehensive work Urban green-blue grids for sustainable and dynamic cities (Potz & Blueze, Coop for Life, Delft 2012). 2. A second example of my work in this case is the interactive development -with public and private stakeholders - of a new guiding model, the Event Storage Model. This guiding model supports design processes aiming the sustainable development of canals. Nowadays three dimensional animation movies put forward good practice, see for the functioning of this Event Storage Model: https://youtu.be/ISN0lFTIKiQ.
1 - Provided than two examples that demonstrate the ability to produce concise reports that incorporate learning from exchange and learning activities, put forward good practice and policy messages targeting city practitioners and urban policy-makers (for participants as well as for an external audience). Urban green-blue grids might be relevant example (not fully clear) but the other example is not linked to integrated urban renewal. However, the expert was involved in several project of urban renewal (Haarlem, the urban renewal of the Poptahof in the city of Delft, the urban renewal of Kvillebacken in the city of Gothenburg etc.)
D.4. Understanding of how to maximize the use of project results for benefits in capitalization, policy design, awarenes:
Without practice there is no theory, but there is plenty of practice without theory. Applied sciences are developing in higher education. Causing it to respond quickly to current practical affairs, like water management. The Top Sector Policy and the Delta Program have caused a flow of attention to water and its impact on the environment, spatial planning and society. The approach to drinking water, sewage effluent, rainwater, surface water and groundwater in our everyday environment has become increasingly sustainable. That also applies to the Applied Research Center Food & Dairy and the chair Sustainable Water Systems (SWS) in particular of the Van Hall Larenstein (VHL) University of Applied Sciences. The mission of the research group of the chair Sustainable Water Systems (SWS) is to gain knowledge and insight into the practice of sustainable development of water systems. The water system is approached from a source-oriented, spatial-oriented and actor-oriented perspective. The (a)quadruple helix appeals to our society in the dissemination of innovations. Sustainable water technology is integrated in spatial development and society in order to reduce the "innovation gap". The SWS chair contributes to the social task of the water transition through research and education. This transition is aimed at retaining more water and keeping it clean, instead of rapidly discharging lots of water and purifying it. The aim is to achieve consistent long-term perspectives that lead to an improvement in the quality of the environment, and an improvement of the socio-cultural quality. A sustainable approach to the water issue simultaneously offers perspectives for the participation of residents, administrators, policy makers, entrepreneurs and... researchers. The connecting element of this chair is formed by research themes such as water and the built environment, water and climate, water and healthy life, water and culture, and a toolkit with guiding principles for sustainable water. Topics that will be provided over the next four years by societal demands. The lectureship will circulate (existing) water knowledge by conducting scientific practical research into innovative processes, concepts and practical examples on different scale levels. Not only in close cooperation with the environmental science courses and land and water management and the Water Campus in Leeuwarden, but also with other institutions. The chair offers promising combinations and perspectives for a responsible future-proof approach to water through transdisciplinary learning. Not just here and now, but also there and later on. I work on a research project called ‘Better Wetter’ – Better Water - at this moment. The aim of this project is to retain or harvest as much as clean (rain) water in the region of north-east Fryslan. A landscape with peat, water, nature, small villages and mainly agriculture causing all kind of conflicts. Evidence based we use the 4-C’s which combines both; the organisation issues and the substance of a planning process to achieve shared responsibility for the practical solutions among students and professionals at the same time.
1 - Provided example that demonstrates an understanding of how to maximize the use of project results for strategic benefits in capitalization, policy design, awareness raising, etc. There are more examples/demonstrations in PURE and ENCORE projects (C2.1) and in the CV which are more relevant than the answer to D.4
Summary Thematic expertise:
As environmental engineer I am specialised in the sustainable development of urban water systems. Changing processes such as sustainable development of water systems are dynamic, uncertain and complex. The substantive issues of sustainable development are just as important as the process itself. Based on theoretical insights of both (ecological conditions theory and the soft systems method) my expertise is the use of the Guiding Principle Approach. This approach is similar to a toolkit in which all kind of technical, spatial and social tools can be used in different contexts to contribute or accelerate sustainable development. In this case I am an ''expert by experience' in the field. One of these tools I developed by bringing theory into practise is the Participative Strategy (PS). The PS encourages trans-disciplinary environmental stewardship of all stakeholders involved in various working procedures. The PS facilitates a collective learning process and thus stimulates cooperation in the development of proposals for a new water management regime, which are elaborated, applied and maintained in subsequent stages of the urban renewal planning process. The design proposals are, via the PS, the result of a cooperative process for which the participants are jointly responsible. They are integrated design proposals because the environmental, spatial and social aspects have all been incorporated during the various working procedures. These activities maintain continuity in the changes in water management during the planning process. As a professor Sustainable Water Systems at Van Hall Larenstein, University of Applied Science I have a strong 'learning by doing' attitude. I still develop the toolbox with my ''expertise by experience'' in the field of changing or transition processes in all kind of contexts.
The expert is validated in this theme, scoring 3 out of 4. Throughout his answers there were more references to water and environment than integrated urban renewal but nevertheless he has demonstrated enough relevant experience.
Expertise support to local authorities and other stakeholders in designing & delivering integrated and participatory policies
E.1. Knowledge on participatory methods and tools for co-production and implementation of local polices :
Applied Science of Participation Strategies and tools is my expertise. Sustainable development of (urban) water systems is my focus. Co-creative, co-operation and supporting design processes are the key words. Main goal: to achieve a sense of joined/shared responsibility among all participants involved for the outcomes for such a participative process. As researcher, manager, director/dean and currently as professor Sustainable Water Systems it is my mission/duty to facilitate social innovation by making the collective learning process explicit. A couple of tools I use and/or developed are: - Soft Systems Method (Peter Checkland) - Guiding Principle Aproach (Sybrand Tjallingii) - Workshops such as the Water Integration Method - Xplorelabs (design studios with knowledge institutes) - Mutual Gain Approach - Citizens Science, participative monitoring - making the invisible visible such as an animation of the guiding model of event storage for re-designing canals. – etc., etc. I developed and used these strategies, approaches and methods in different contexts and projects such as the urban renewal of Schalkwijk in the city of Haarlem, the urban renewal of the Poptahof in the city of Delft, the urban renewal of Kvillebacken in the city of Gothenburg and recently in the re-designing of canals in the north of the Netherlands.
1 - Demonstrated two years of experience in the category E and provided relevant activity that demonstrates knowledge on participatory methods and tools for co-production and implementation of local polices (including proactive outreach to different stakeholders, conflict resolution, mediation of interests, community dialogue, etc.) related to sustainable water systems and urban renewal.
E.2. Knowledge on integrated approach for the design, delivering, monitoring and evaluation of urban strategies/policies:
The four strands of a DNA structure discovered in 2013 is used as a metaphor to add our society to the golden triangle – or triple helix - which is represented by the close cooperation between public, business and research parties. In this triangle they work successfully on technical water innovations. The (a)quadruple helix aims to increase water awareness among our society by bridging the innovation gap between technical and system innovations. Because of all kind reactions I received over the last months, I am more and more convinced that tools like remote operating vehicles such as underwater drones can support this goal and encourage water stewardship. Beside the use of dynamic, innovative monitoring techniques I elaborate concepts, practical tools and guidelines for the design and operation of sustainable urban water systems. Together with the local water authorities I took the initiative to monitor and to evaluate one of the first integral and sustainable urban water demonstration projects in the Netherlands, better known as Morrapark in Drachten. This water system is based on the so called circulation – guiding - model. One of the innovative tools we are using is the underwater drone with sensors and camera.
0 - provided less than one relevant activity that demonstrates knowledge on integrated approach for the design, delivering, monitoring and evaluation of sustainable urban strategies/policies. The example provided was a demonstration project, not urban development strategy or policy.
E.3. Awareness of the main policy and funding schemes for sustainable urban development at EU and national level:
Awareness of policy and funding concerning sustainable urban development through: - the review board of the chair Sustainable Water Systems - the peer group with colleagues water professors - conversations with grant writers and subsidy advisors of Van Hal Larenstein University of Applied Sciences - writing funding proposals – participating in international conferences - visiting the European Institutions in Brussels and other strategic networking activities.
0 - provided less than one valid example that demonstrates awareness of the main policy and funding schemes for sustainable urban development at EU and national level. The funding schemes were not mentioned and the provided examples are related to funding for water systems research, not integrated urban development.
E.4. Ability to understand specific local situations and adapt tools and content to different local realities:
In 2018 Leeuwarden/Fryslan will be the Cultural Capital City of Europe. Water is in the DNA of our culture so this is a great opportunity to show Europe how we deal with the challenges like climate change, water system innovations, and social innovation and vice versa. My role is to inspire and build up a community of demonstration projects. At this moment a whole game generation is unaware of the real life issues in the world. However, that generation can be used in education programs and the development of new tools, instrumental in addressing the water transition. I would like to work out a concept which combines both the use of students and their experience in the gaming world, to develop an attractive demonstration project by designing a game comprised of under water drones. For example, by doing so you can built a 3 dimensional maquette of the city of Leeuwarden, which assumes the dikes are broken covering the city with two meters of water, in which the game of real drones take place….Marketing, innovation, climate change awareness and gaming all-in one. More seriously is the monitoring of sustainable water systems which have been operating for the last two decades. For this, it is necessary to explain in brief the applied scientific approach which was developed in the early nineties, and is still actively being used. Better known as the Guiding Principle Approach introduced in this application. This approach consists of spatial planning tools supporting processes of sustainable development of water systems. There are several spatial planning methods such as the blue print approach and the open process approach. But why the guiding principle approach? This approach is explicitly based on principles derived from scientific ecological research. In interdisciplinary and interactive planning processes the GPA generates a learning process. Since its development in the 90’s, and by ‘’learning by doing’’ this approach is continually developing itself with new experiences. The GPA consists of basic concepts with a strategic and more operational character which, depending of the context, can be used in different stadia of the planning process. These are the guiding principles and guiding models. Examples of a guiding principle could be ‘’Retain or harvest water as long as you can in the area and keep it clean’’ or ‘’Use local (tacit) knowledge of inhabitants and managers’’
0 - provided less than one relevant activity that demonstrates ability to understand specific local situations and adapt tools and content to different local realities so as to ensure consistency in the design and delivery of integrated and participatory policies across participants in transnational projects. The example provided was not a transnational project.
The expert is not validated for E (scoring 1 out of 4) as he did not demonstrate enough relevant experience with intergarted sustainable urban development policies. Applied Science of Participation Strategies and tools is my expertise. Sustainable development of (urban) water systems is my focus. Co-creative, co-operation and supporting design processes are the key words. Main goal: to achieve a sense of joined/shared responsibility among all participants involved for the outcomes for such a participative process. The (a)quadruple helix adds our society to the triple helix. The quadruple helix aims to increase water awareness among our society by bridging the innovation gap between technical and system innovations. In 2018 Leeuwarden/Fryslan will be the Cultural Capital City of Europe. Water is in the DNA of our culture so this is a great opportunity to show in Europe how we deal with the challenges like climate change, water system innovations, and social innovation. My role is to inspire and built up a community of demonstration projects by setting up a transnational learning process and to encourage sustainable urban water stewardship.