• VITAL CITIES

    Timeline

    Kick-off meeting in July (Birmingham). Transnational meeting in November (Liepaja).
    Transnational meeting in March (Rieti).
    Final event in April (Loule).

    Municipality of Athienou
    2, Archbishop Makarios III Ave.
    7600 Athienou Cyprus

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Santiago de Compostela

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Udine (Italy)

    CONTACT US

    For any enquires into Tech Revolution, email: DMC@Barnsley.gov.uk

    Keep following our social media channels as we develop Tech Revolution 2.0 as part of the second wave of URBACT ||| Programme. 

    Follow our Twitter: @Tech_RevEu
    Follow our Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/urbact-techrevolution/

    CONTACT US

    Coordinator

    ADDRESS

    Av. Movimento das Forças Armadas

    2700-595 Amadora

    Portugal 

    TELEPHONE

    +351 21 436 9000

    Ext. 1801

    CONTACT US

    City of Rome

    tamara.lucarelli@comune.roma.it

    Department of European Funds and Innovation

    Via Palazzo di Città, 1 - 10121 Turin (Italy)

     

    CONTACT US

    Câmara Municipal de Lisboa

    Departamento de Desenvolvimento Local

    Edifício Municipal, Campo Grande nº25, 6ºE | 1749 -099 Lisboa

    CONTACT US

    urbact.civicestate@gmail.com

    CONTACT US

    Laura González Méndez. Project coordinator.

    Gijón City Council

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Piraeus

    CONTACT US

    City of Ljubljana

    Mestni trg 1

    1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

    CONTACT US

    Project Coordinator Martin Neubert

    +49 371 355 7029

     

    CONTACT US

    Riga NGO House

    CONTACT US

    City of Antwarp
    Grote Markt 1 - 2000 Antwarpen

    Manchester City Council
    Manchester M2 5RT

    City of Rotterdam
    Coolsingel 40, 3011 AD Rotterdam

    City Council Bielefeld
    Bürger Service Center
    Phone +49 521 510

    CONTACT US

    City of Eindhoven
    Stadhuisplein 1, 5611 EM Eindhoven

    City of Loulé
    Praça da República, 8104-001 Loulé
    Phone +351 289 400 600

    CONTACT US

    Seeking answers on how to combat social exclusion through the redesign of public spaces in deprived residential areas by using the power and common language of sport, this Action Planning network found solutions through innovative urban sport actions, physical equipment and better orchestrated service delivery. Active living positively contributes to social cohesion, wellbeing and economic prosperity in cities. However, currently cities are challenged by the opposite: dramatic increase in the frequency of diseases as a result of sedentary life style and social exclusion. To tackle these challenges, European cities have invested in large scale sports facilities over the past decades. These strategies have a limited success, hence a new approach is needed: instead of ‘bringing’ the inactive citizens to the sports facilities, public space itself should be turned into a low threshold facility inviting all citizens to physical activity.

    Urban sports promotion for social inclusion, healthy and active living
    Ref nid
    7509
  • CHANGE!

    Timeline

    Kick-off meeting in September (London). Transnational meeting in November (Amarante).
    Transnational meetings in April (Gdansk), September (Aarhus) and November (Dun Laoghaire).
    Final event in March (Eindhoven).

    Municipality of Athienou
    2, Archbishop Makarios III Ave.
    7600 Athienou Cyprus

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Santiago de Compostela

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Udine (Italy)

    CONTACT US

    For any enquires into Tech Revolution, email: DMC@Barnsley.gov.uk

    Keep following our social media channels as we develop Tech Revolution 2.0 as part of the second wave of URBACT ||| Programme. 

    Follow our Twitter: @Tech_RevEu
    Follow our Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/urbact-techrevolution/

    CONTACT US

    Coordinator

    ADDRESS

    Av. Movimento das Forças Armadas

    2700-595 Amadora

    Portugal 

    TELEPHONE

    +351 21 436 9000

    Ext. 1801

    CONTACT US

    City of Rome

    tamara.lucarelli@comune.roma.it

    Department of European Funds and Innovation

    Via Palazzo di Città, 1 - 10121 Turin (Italy)

     

    CONTACT US

    Câmara Municipal de Lisboa

    Departamento de Desenvolvimento Local

    Edifício Municipal, Campo Grande nº25, 6ºE | 1749 -099 Lisboa

    CONTACT US

    urbact.civicestate@gmail.com

    CONTACT US

    Laura González Méndez. Project coordinator.

    Gijón City Council

    CONTACT US

    Municipality of Piraeus

    CONTACT US

    City of Ljubljana

    Mestni trg 1

    1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

    CONTACT US

    Project Coordinator Martin Neubert

    +49 371 355 7029

     

    CONTACT US

    Riga NGO House

    CONTACT US

    City of Antwarp
    Grote Markt 1 - 2000 Antwarpen

    Manchester City Council
    Manchester M2 5RT

    City of Rotterdam
    Coolsingel 40, 3011 AD Rotterdam

    City Council Bielefeld
    Bürger Service Center
    Phone +49 521 510

    CONTACT US

    City of Eindhoven
    Stadhuisplein 1, 5611 EM Eindhoven

    In times when personal sacrifices are much needed to tackle burning societal issues, fostering and enabling collaboration at local level of public administration is of the utmost importance. The partners of this Action Planning network had the opportunity to reflect upon social design, a process to think over alongside local stakeholders how to co-design their social public services towards a more collaborative service. This means to create an urban strategy that somehow engages volunteers to improve communities and public services, reducing costs at the same time.

    People powered public services
    Ref nid
    7513
  • Metropolitan areas under the pandemic

    Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedIn
    15/11/2022

    What can we learn about Functional Urban Area governance from Covid-19 responses?

    Articles
    Health

    This article explores how responses at different levels of governance during the height of the Covid-19 crisis reinforce the need for territorially integrated approaches to sustainable urban development. First, we get a snapshot of metropolitan area governance in Europe, before zooming in on the example of Barcelona and their recent experiences during the lockdown. Finally, we consider some of the potential longer-term urban development dilemmas facing metropolitan areas and their potential responses.

    In the article we use ‘metropolitan areas’ and ‘functional urban areas’ (FUAs) interchangeably, although the former usually refers to urban areas around larger cities.

     

    Understanding metropolitan governance

    The pandemic arrived suddenly and, across the EU, decision-making on the most important health, economic and public security issues was centralised at a national level. Local governments were confronted by an unfavourable ‘scissor effect’: while their social and economic challenges increased dramatically, their capacity to act independently and their revenues decreased sharply.

    Local governments also had to cope with major coordination challenges in both sectoral and spatial terms. Responses had to avoid negative sectoral externalities – particularly regarding existing environmental, economic and social crises. They also had to reflect the reality that citizens organise their lives across administrative boundaries and that decisions in one municipality affect all of its neighbours.

    All these challenges raise the importance of functional urban area (FUA) coordination among municipalities – as recognised in the new Leipzig Charter. So what does metropolitan governance in Europe currently look like?

    According to a 2014 OECD survey of 263 metropolitan areas with over 500 thousand inhabitants, more than two-thirds have some type of governance body formally responsible for coordinating policies. In just over half of these cases, governance is based on informal/soft coordination. In comparison, 24% benefit from an inter-municipal authority, 16% have a supra-municipal authority and only 8% are formal ‘metropolitan cities’.

    Metropolitan areas in OECD countries can therefore be classified into three, roughly equal, categories: a) strong coordination by inter-municipal, supra-municipal authorities or metropolitan cities; b) weak informal/soft coordination; and c) no coordination at all.

    The experience of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area during lockdown

    So, what happened during the lockdown in the case of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (AMB), a well-established model of metropolitan cooperation – as presented during the most recent URBACT City Lab. The AMB covers 36 municipalities with a total of 3.2 million inhabitants. While the population of Barcelona is 1.6 million, the ‘real functional urban area’ is above 4 million people.

    Xavier Tiana Casablancas, head of International Relations in the AMB, explained recently during a “Cities on the frontline” global Resilient Cities Network webinar that the use of public transport decreased dramatically during the pandemic: during lockdown to below 10% and was still at only around 50% of normal use by the end of July. All in all, AMB has had to deal with a 15-20% budget cut in 2020.

    Even if benefitting from a strong metropolitan governance system with a strong agency, AMB was totally unprepared for this crisis. After a few weeks, however, metropolitan cooperation proved to be very useful in all areas of competence of AMB.

    • Public space: sanitation, closing and opening of parks was jointly decided.
    • Waste: there was an overall decrease of waste in the city of Barcelona (despite a 300% increase in hospital waste), but an increase in waste in surrounding residential areas – thus the waste management service had to be modified at metropolitan level.
    • Health care is a regional (Catalonian) competence, although there was some re-nationalisation of healthcare management. Despite all this, the exchange of information between the mayors was very important even in this sector.

    The most substantial interventions were taken in mobility. Following many temporary measures, the Metropolitan Council (comprising 90 metropolitan councillors, including the 36 mayors and additional councillors in proportion to the demographic weight of the municipalities) adopted in June a new metropolitan mobility strategy, with four main topics :

    • more bicycles and pedestrians, 70 km of new bike routes;
    • improving public transport, restoring public trust;
    • new mobility in the work environment; and
    • establishing a metropolitan low-emission zone for clean air.

    Regarding the Low-Emission Zone of Barcelona, the system became operational on 1 January, but the introduction of fines, which was scheduled for 1 April, was suspended due to the coronavirus pandemic, allowing citizens to drive to medical centres. In July, a decision was taken that fines start on 15 September.

    In his conclusions on the Barcelona metropolitan experience, Xavier Tiana Casablancas argued for more metropolitan leadership, especially in health, public security and education, which are not metropolitan responsibilities, but would need more coordination at this level.

    It is important to emphasise that the coordinated metropolitan responses did not hamper smaller municipalities within the metropolitan area to develop their own rapid responses. For example, Viladecans reacted very quickly and approved a Covid-19 response plan, flexibly adapting the work they were already doing for a plan towards 2030. This plan concentrated on very local issues, such as education, organising the local market place, online ordering service, training app and communication channels - thus, there was a clear difference in topics compared to the AMB interventions.

    Experiences in other types of metropolitan areas

    More research would be needed to fully map the experiences of other EU metropolitan areas. However, anecdotally, it seems that the experiences of other FUAs with strong metropolitan coordination are not very different from those of Barcelona. Examples of metropolitan area responses collected by Eurocities highlight several such interventions.

    Interventions logically concentrate on those sectors where the metropolitan level has competence, such as transport, including initiatives around supporting public transport and bike use, such as those seen in the metropolitan areas of Lille, Bologna, Bordeaux and Nice. There has also been evidence of metropolitan coordination in economic matters such as those in Grenoble and in housing and social issues, as those in Brussels, Nantes and Istanbul.

    Unfortunately, much less is known about FUAs with weak or no metropolitan coordination, since these areas are also weaker in communicating about such matters. However, some anecdotal evidence can be seen which suggests that existing problems and conflicts among settlements have been sharpened during the lockdown in areas with no metropolitan coordination; for example regarding rules around the use of public spaces.

    It was a relatively common occurrence in municipalities around major cities that recreational areas were shut down to prevent the spreading of the virus by city residents coming into their administrative boundaries. Even the coordination of public transport and waste collection could be a problem in the absence of strong metropolitan governance across municipalities. Special problems were inevitable in even well-developed practices of cross-border cooperation which were suddenly forced to stop due to the closing of national borders.

    We’d be interested to hear more examples of both positive and challenging experiences of FUA coordination during the lockdown. Share your stories with us by writing to e.thorpe@urbact.eu.

    Longer-term urban development dilemmas and potential answers

    For the moment, the longer-term consequences of the pandemic are not yet clear. There are signs, however, that – besides the economic and social problems – a new wave of suburbanisation might result if people become increasingly interested to move to suburbs, avoiding living in the more densely populated urban areas.

    If sub-urbanisation becomes unavoidable, the introduction of efficient metropolitan coordination will be critical. The most important tasks on metropolitan level will include to ensure the new conditions for health protection, to deal with the negative effects on climate change (related to increased mobility, individual heating and spread out economic activities), and to address housing needs (with special regard to affordable and social housing). Furthermore, unmanaged sprawl should be avoided by coordinated metropolitan area planning.

    URBACT has explored many examples of how more cooperation can be built up on a metropolitan level – see info box on relevant URBACT II networks below. The latest generation of URBACT APNs (Action Planning Networks) is continuing to explore issues of successful FUA coordination and we look forward to following their results.

    For example, AMB Barcelona is leading the RiConnect APN which aims to rethink, transform and integrate mobility infrastructures at metropolitan level in order to reconnect people, neighbourhoods, cities and natural spaces. It includes seven other large EU metropolitan areas, including the case of the largest transport project in Europe.

    The URBACT Urb-En Pact APN addresses metropolitan cooperation around the ambitious aim of becoming net zero energy (NZE) territories no later than 2050. This important topic is being explored by nine partner cities and organisations looking to unite all stakeholders of the circular economy in and around the metropolitan area, especially the consumers included in the energy loop.

    Conclusion

    Experiences of metropolitan areas during the pandemic have clearly shown that, whilst healthcare itself is rarely organised at FUA level, the resilience of urban areas to the recent health crisis was heavily impacted by the strength and effectiveness of metropolitan coordination. Strong metropolitan governance was able to support effective responses in particular regarding the use of public space, and the re-organisation of mobility and other public services.

    The importance of FUA governance becomes even more evident when discussing the potential longer-term economic, social and urban consequences of the pandemic. There are already signs of new waves of suburbanisation around large cities. It is of prime importance for the goals of sustainable urban development that the eventual spatial spreading of urban living be effectively managed and coordinated across FUAs to avoid the worst consequences of urban sprawl. In this regard, several URBACT networks have already and will continue to provide very useful information on how such governance arrangements can be supported.

     

    Several URBACT II networks developed lessons and knowledge about governance, planning and mobility issues in metropolitan areas:

    Joining Forces analysed different organisational forms of public functions in FUAs, comparing the more frequent approach of clearly allocated competences between levels, with the approach taken in some member states (e.g. UK) where several agencies have been created to manage different functions, each with their own administrative boundaries. The former is more orderly, but can also be slower to adapt to changing needs.

    Nodus worked on the spatial aspects of dealing with deprived neighbourhoods. One of its main messages was on the importance of FUA governance for ensuring the balanced functioning of interventions, avoiding negative spatial externalities of regeneration activities.

    NeT-TOPIC focused on the situation of peripheral municipalities within metropolitan areas and suggested that such municipalities have to find their specific functions within the wider metropolitan area, making it in that way more multi-functional.

    UseAct – Urban Sustainable Environmental Actions – focused on the re-use of inner urban areas to protect empty land. Among the central issues was urban growth management in metropolitan areas, discussing the planning and management tools and also the organisational models to support this, such as public-private partnerships (PPPs), quality of interventions, proactive participation and also adaptive re-use.

    Lumasec – Land Use Management for Sustainable European Cities – suggested that cities must remain as compact as possible by avoiding sprawl – for which primarily governance tools have to be used based on: mapping structures; identifying the need for land-use tools; involving stakeholders; and developing a strategy. Individual projects can then follow, based on the identification of integrated financial tools.

    EnterHub – developed innovative planning tools enhancing urban planning and city policies to reach a sustainable urban and territorial development through the strengthening and widening of the railway systems, in particular by exploiting the economic, cultural and social inducts of railway hubs of regional relevance.

     

    From urbact
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    Ref nid
    14509
  • Health&Greenspace

    Summary

    LEAD PARTNER : 12th District of Budapest (Hegyvidék) - Hungary
    • Tartu - Estonia
    • Santa Pola - Spain
    • Espoo - Finland
    • Limerick - Ireland
    • Messina - Italy
    • Breda - Netherlands
    • Poznań - Poland
    • Suceava - Romania

    Timeline

    • Kick-off meeting Phase 1
    • Kick-off meeting Phase 2
    • Activation meeting, Health&Greenspace Academy, Thematic Working Groups
    • Small scale actions starting
    • Integrated Action Plans ready, Peer-review sessions

    Integrated Action Plans

    Municipality of MESSINA - Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Messina - Italy
    The Green Integrated Action Plan for Poznan

    Read more here !

    Poznan - Poland
    Hegyvidék, Budapest 12 Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Hegyvidék, Budapest 12 - Hungary
    A Climate-conscious Action Plan for Urban Space (Re)design in Tartu

    Read more here !

    Tartu - Estonia
    A new park in Breda Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Breda - The Netherlands
    Limerick Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Limerick - Ireland
    Santa Pola Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Santa Pola - Spain
    Suceava Integrated Action Plan

    Read more here !

    Suceava - Romania
    Espoo´s Integrated Action Plan for health-responsive blue-green infrastructure

    Read more here !

    Espoo - Finland

    How can we improve urban green spaces in order to promote mental and physical health for our communities? Health&Greenspace Action Planning Network links green infrastructure design and management to urban health policies and practices. The project focuses on physical and mental health benefits of urban green spaces, as well as their role in improving social health and air quality and reducing heat stress in cities. Actions targeted by the network are linked to both physical changes to the urban environment and the promotion of social activities such as community, cultural, education and physical activity programs in green areas.

    Health&Greenspace
    Ref nid
    13488
  • McAuley Place for older people

    Ireland
    Naas

    The game changer in city centre revitalisation

    Sonya Kavanagh
    Director for Services, Economic Development, Kildare County Council
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    20 002

    Summary

    To ensure the quality of life of its older people and their independence, Naas (IE) developed an alternative model to the institutional residential care one. McAuley Place is a non-medical, intergenerational and not-for-profit housing association located in the city centre, its 53 apartments are allocated both socially and privately to 60 people. McAuley Place aims at bringing older people to the heart of the vibrant Naas community. Activities such as the popular Arts and Crafts programme, by attracting inhabitants of all age, ensure the social inclusion and integration of the tenants. Since 2008, McAuley has been providing an environment in which all stakeholders, residents, workers and volunteers (often students), can connect.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    McAuley Place offers the following: • It indicates the primary importance of operating to a Value-System. This is seldom the case in urban plan-making. Stating a value-system up front means you have to carry it through into policy, plan, and operational life; • McAuley is driven by the UN Principles for Older People, indicating clarity in its philosophy and ethos, but also indicating how these principles are put into practice; • McAuley offers a model of sustainable urban living, with a town centre location and a mixed-use campus, where culture operates as a critical platform, accessible to both resident and visitor alike; • It has been achieved through networking a cross-institutional approach and leveraging vertical integration through support from government, local authority, local business, and community groups; • In terms of both policy and operational fronts, McAuley Place strives to achieve horizontal integration through synthesising strategy which links social, economic and environmental perspectives; • McAuley illustrates inter-generational participation through activities which draw in all age groups into an intentionally mixed programme.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    • McAuley Place is guided by a holistic thrust. It works to achieve an awareness of the total systems it operates within, is inspired by its vision of the shape of future success, and applies strategy, action and tools to achieve it; • While working within a systems approach, which acknowledges the complexity of urban places, a thematic framework helps to structure this complexity, and suggests the need to achieve sustainability under key headings, e.g. social sustainability, cultural sustainability, economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, movement sustainability, and the spatial sustainability of urban form; • Key areas of performance include the re-use of under-used and vacant town centre sites, the application of mixed land use, combining the diversity of complementary activities in a mixed programme; • McAuley reduces the need for vehicular use, through its town centre location, which prioritises pedestrian access through walking and cycling; • McAuley Place achieves environmental objectives through recycling, water conservation, sourcing local food products for its tea rooms, and by providing ecological green spaces.

    Based on a participatory approach

    Openness, transparency, and communication. It strives to create an environment in which all its stakeholders, residents, workers/volunteers, can communicate, connect, and collaborate. • McAuley Place encourages and relies on a wide range of support from local government, local business and community group stakeholders; • It is the practice in McAuley Place to encourage a wide cross-section of stakeholders to become available for interviews for media/research, etc.; • High levels of participation in its Arts and Crafts programme reflect the critical importance of creativity, and help build a culture of social contact.

    What difference has it made?

    • The UN Principles on Older People hang in the foyer, the mixed-use campus sits around you; tea rooms, 53 apartments, Arts Hub, community centre, walled garden and Health through Learning Project [Phase 1]; • The events programme is real, varied, and very well supported; • The tea rooms are a huge success, a bustling meeting point for the town, where young and old mingle, where wonderful food is served, and where up to 35 volunteers support the full-time staff; • McAuley is a huge positive statement in a town centre which has suffered economically, and where there are many vacant buildings; • It illustrates how top-down governance, and bottom-up community energy can combine to tackle what appear to be intractable social issues, e.g. the isolation and poor quality of life suffered by older people; • The model of McAuley Place has drawn much interest from media and TV, and has been endorsed by the President of Ireland; • Evidence of huge ongoing community support. Evidence of lived lives.

    Why should other European cities use it?

    • The relationship of society to its older generation is a universal issue. McAuley Place shows how this issue can be approached, and how existing poor practice can be challenged; • It demonstrates an inter-disciplinary and inter-sectoral approach embedded in a campus where the mix of residential, Arts Hub, community centre, restored garden and tea rooms creates the kind of rich ecology which produces daily minor miracles, and sustains mental health and human existence; • McAuley is socially innovative, it has created a new kind of infrastructure, and it has done this by working in a cross-institutional manner, building bridges between top-down governance and a bottom-up “can-do” mindset; • It has used a hard infrastructure from a past legacy and fused it with the soft infrastructure inspired by a value system expressed in the UN Principles for Older People; • McAuley Place is an innovative contemporary institution which attracts and retains an impressive contribution from volunteers; • Every city and every neighbourhood would benefit from a McAuley Place.

    Is a transfer practice
    0
    Ref nid
    9544
  • All united for more biodiversity

    France
    Eurometropolis Strasbourg

    A charter to manage green spaces in a eco-friendly way

    Mina Charnaux
    Project manager Zero pesticide & Nature in the city
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    484 157

    Summary

    Strasbourg (FR) is steadily working on improving its environmental impact, and on promoting biodiversity. In 2008, it stopped using pesticides and integrated plants into the urban landscape. The charter “All united for more biodiversity”, launched in 2012, constituted another step in this direction: it gathers 75 signatories which are both professional and non-professional organisations. They commit to biodiversity by taking actions such as reducing light pollution or setting up green walls. Through the charter, all stakeholders are given the opportunity to work together, thus strengthening an eco-friendly network and multiplying its impact on the territory.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    Supporting nature and biodiversity is an absolute necessity. The charter “All united for biodiversity” can help answer some issues faced by cities nowadays. By engaging all willing stakeholders in the territory, the charter is strengthening the existing ecological network. This is a significant improvement: the actions of the Eurometropolis of Strasbourg are limited to some areas, but with the help and good will of many stakeholders, the impact can be multiplied. Moreover, the stakeholders are accompanied when they sign the charter. They have to choose between six actions of various types that are listed by categories. For example, “Preserving the environment” equals abandoning the use of pesticides, “Save energy and resources” means reducing watering or light pollution, “Planting for biodiversity” is implementing local species and meadows for bees, and “Protect and develop the ecosystem” includes installation of biodiversity shelters and green walls and/or roofs. All of these actions can truly improve biodiversity around the firm that chooses to sign, and thus improve the possibility of a strong ecological network.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    The project “All united for more biodiversity” is based on sustainable development and participatory approach. The commitment of a wide panel of stakeholders all along the territory is making the city greener and more ecological. By reconnecting the spaces of nature, this ecological network will be useful to make the city more resilient and better integrated into its environment. By sharing nature-friendly managements, it is also improving the global natural health of the territory. Another important asset of this project is the commitment of all: businesses, organisations, sponsors, social housing, administrators and developers, as well as the communes within the Eurometropolis of Strasbourg can be involved and act for more biodiversity.

    Based on a participatory approach

    The charter “All united for more biodiversity” is a participatory approach. Firstly, all stakeholders on the territory were given the chance to work together for the first time, thus developing a global and coherent approach and connecting ecological spaces responding to each other. This process has a real strength, as it shares experiences. The stakeholders can exchange their successes and problems, therefore creating another type of network. Moreover, the Eurometropolis is supporting the change of management in a real cooperation between the local administration and private or public bodies. Secondly, the actions proposed in the charter often create a new dynamic. Employees of the signatory structure might be invited to participate, and many examples show that they are genuinely interested in the procedure. 88% of the concerned structures decided to involve their staff. Managing green spaces in a sustainable way is not only an environmental matter, it also creates new opportunities to develop social links inside the firm.

    What difference has it made?

    Upon its creation in 2012, the Charter was signed by 23 stakeholders, which is already something. Today, five years later, we have the pleasure to count 75 signatories, a real community reunited for biodiversity, and for all of them, the signature had positive consequences. One of the main measures has been the abandonment of pesticides in the management of green spaces. While 89% used them when signing, this commitment truly made a difference. 84% of the signatories have pledged to plant local species, whether meadows, natural hedges or fruit trees. Many detailed examples can be found in the guide printed recently, but here is an example: Mondelez International (Suchard factory) signed the charter in 2012. Its first decision was to involve the staff: the choice of the first six actions was made in cooperation with a group of motivated employees. Among the first decisions were the ban of pesticides, a fauna/flora diagnosis, and the implementation of 19 beehives. Many other projects followed: a shared garden, the installation of 16 nest boxes (both specialised and unspecialised), etc. There are more future projects: shared composting, the implementation of a school orchard and fruit trees, the creation of a pond...

    Why should other European cities use it?

    This project is unique because it not only involves the citizens and the public stakeholder, but also the professional area. They have a real allowance on the territory, but paradoxically, they are less often involved in biodiversity projects. This good practice can be very interesting for other European cities because the loss of biodiversity and the sustainable city is not an issue faced only by France, but by all other big cities in the world. An ecological network at a different scale could also be imagined: European cities working together to improve the place of biodiversity. Since the Paris COP 21 climate change conference held in December 2015, 175 countries committed to reduce climate change: no doubt, increasing biodiversity and ecological management is part of the process.

    Is a transfer practice
    0
    Ref nid
    9542
  • Building an age-friendly city

    Spain
    Badalona

    The story of how to implement an age-friendly urban strategy to promote citizens' health, inclusion and wellbeing at all stages of life.

    Jordi Piera
    Chief Information and R&D Officer at Badalona Serveis Assistencials
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    215 634

    Summary

    Demographic change is one of the key societal challenges that cities are facing. The number of elderly citizens is increasing continuously, but cities are struggling to adapt to their needs. The city of Badalona (ES) acknowledged this mandate for change and demonstrated that it is possible to redesign the local health and social services to improve the quality of life of elderly people.
    Through several initiatives and projects launched since 2012, Badalona aims at putting the citizen at the centre of the continuum of care, including vertical integration (between different levels of care) and horizontal integration (between different local services, e.g. social services, employment and housing). The results are an improved quality of care, and more stable interconnections between different public services.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    The good practice in Badalona is formed by a set of interrelated solutions that conform a holistic approach towards active and healthy ageing, while including all the relevant stakeholders within an innovation ecosystem. The practice is completely aligned with the policy level, service provision, industry level, academia, R&D activities and the civil society throughout a participatory process that enables a common design, and redesign of the overall strategy. The practice is represented mainly by four different solutions: • Badalona Towards a Healthy City: a city project that fosters and promotes healthy habits within citizenship, and helps to prevent disease with a clear participatory vision and networking view; • R&D Chair between Badalona Serveis Assistencials (BSA) and the Open University of Catalonia UOC): with the objective to foster the research and innovation actions based on the use of ICT in the fields of health and social care; • Badalona Reference Site on Active and Healthy Ageing: where 24 actors, covering the Quadruple Helix of Innovation within the city of Badalona, have obtained the recognition of the European Commission, and operate in a coordinated manner towards the common goal of building an age-friendly city; • Badalona Health Observatory: merging environmental, demographic, social and clinical data towards identifying patterns and determinants of healthy living within the urban context.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    Active and healthy ageing should be understood as the way of optimising the health opportunities, participation and security of the people as they age. We are moving from a conceptual healthcare model that deals individually with each citizen and that considers him/her a passive actor of the system towards a model that fosters the rights of old people, their autonomy and the establishment of social relations. They are appraised as change actors, recognising the values and competencies that they bring into the community and the main objective is the improvement of their quality of life. Tackling ageing from this new vision requires taking into account the following concepts: autonomy and dependency, participation, the vital course of life, cultural aspects, inequalities (in terms of poverty and social exclusion) and environmental factors. The project deployed in Badalona is fully built on the top of the sustainable and integrated approach in all of the dimensions as defined in the URBACT values. A full ecosystem of partners covering the Quadruple Helix of Innovation work together (vertical integration) towards converting the city into an urban age-friendly innovation ecosystem. This is greatly improved through the regional and international cooperation. The interventions deployed through the Reference Site network combine physical, economic, social and the environmental dimensions (horizontal integration).

    Based on a participatory approach

    The target of this practice mainly comprises the Northern Barcelona healthcare region, where the assigned population reaches 545,000 inhabitants. Even though the city of Badalona is the coordinator of the initiative, there are other municipalities that are also benefiting from the holistic strategy: Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Montgat, Tiana, Alella, Teià and Masnou. This shows a participatory design not only at a local level, but also at metropolitan area level. The leading ecosystem of the practice has been collaborating for many years through the so-called Healthcare Boards, managed by Badalona Serveis Assistencials, to engage all the relevant stakeholders at local level in order to contribute to shaping the health and care model deployed. In 2016, this consortium presented the city's application to become a Reference Site within the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. Its members bring full coverage to the Quadruple Helix of Innovation: a) Government health and social care provision, b) Industry, c) Academia and research and d) civil society. Coming from this application, the city's reference site was validated and rewarded with 2 stars out of 4.

    What difference has it made?

    In Badalona, the whole care model puts the person at the centre of the continuum of care, including vertical and horizontal integration. The internal assessment conducted shows that there has been a reduction in the average length of hospital stay, in the average number of bed days, and in emergency visits. Furthermore, the clinical pathways developed have facilitated an improvement in the process outcomes, including compliance and adherence to the guidelines. These processes have improved the functional status and health outcomes of the elderly, and have led to a reduction in the operating cost of clinical services, while increasing the quality of life of older people living in an urban context. Another example are the economic opportunities that emerged from the inclusion of the private sector through collaboration agreements, meaning to bring new ideas into the market, first through a piloting phase, and later implemented. Three good examples of such strategies are: • ITHACA project (BSA - Novartis - Indra): monitoring hypertensive patients at home, and including an educational programme; • Caring.me project (BSA - Arvato/Bertelsmann): tracking patients impaired by depression through an Internet Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Intervention; • AsmaProcare project (BSA - IN2): a mobile application that manages patients in acute stage of asthma and avoids as much as possible income visits.

    Why should other European cities use it?

    Interest in how things are done by the Badalona municipality has been widely demonstrated. The partners involved in the ecosystem of Badalona are actively contributing to European co-operation and consequently, to transferability through their participation in relevant EU strategies. The experience of BSA in EU-funded projects dates back to 2003, when, following the recommendations from the strategic plan, the organisation started its R&D specialisation strategy towards ICT solutions, to improve the care provided to its target population. Following such an approach, BSA started looking for networking opportunities, both at national and international level. Since then, BSA has participated in many EU projects and different funding programmes such as AAL JP, FP7, CIP, DG SANCO Health Programme, and more recently in H2020. The role in different partnerships has mainly included piloting leadership, evaluation modelling and evidence generation, care pathway design and co-design processes. Two good examples, which show that emerging learning and experiences are being shared with other regions at international level, are: • The case study from the SIMPHS3, conducted by the Joint Research Centre of the EC; • The ACT Cookbook.

    Is a transfer practice
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    Ref nid
    9547
  • Food for cities

    Italy
    Milan

    Urban food policy for an inclusive, integrated and sustainable development of cities

    Chiara Minotti
    EU Affairs Office
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    1 368 590

    Summary

    Population growth in cities brings many challenges to municipalities, such as providing food in a sustainable and equal way, reducing food waste, promoting healthy diets and purchasing food which respects the environment and workers' dignity. To overcome these issues, Milan (IT) launched in 2015 the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, an international protocol focusing on food policies aiming at engaging cities in a more sustainable urban development. Thanks to the Pact, Milan experienced the regeneration of suburban areas of the city, among which the historical Lorenteggio market, which became a social integration centre, and the Cascina Nosedo farmhouse, that will be turned into a place for innovation, fostering entrepreneurship and peri-urban agriculture.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    The practice presents an integrated, holistic and sustainable solution to different problems experienced by the city of Milan, by fostering the regeneration of suburbs, the promotion of open innovation, entrepreneurship, innovation policy and labour, by reducing food waste, promoting healthy diets, encouraging the purchase of food produced in an environmentally respectful way, and by respecting human rights and workers’ dignity. It is an integrated practice because food turns out to be the main changing factor of suburban areas and society. The Pact leads to concrete actions including the restructuring of some peripheral areas of the city of historical importance (i.e. Cascina Nosedo and Lorenteggio market), and the implementation of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, the commitment to the coordination of international food policy which has been subscribed by 137 cities since its launch. The pact aims at making the city more sustainable, and addressed the urban cycle of food (production, processing, logistics, distribution, consumption, and waste) following these priorities: ensure healthy food and sufficient drinking water as a primary element for the population, promote the sustainability of the food system and consumer awareness of healthy, safe, culturally appropriate, sustainable food produced and distributed with respect for human rights and the environment, the fight against waste, and the support and promotion of scientific agri-food research.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    The practice of the City of Milan tackles the challenge of sustainable urban living over an integrated approach to solve different problems of the city. In the last years, our city showed to be a transforming metropolitan area increasingly dedicated to environmental protection, nutritional awareness, social justice and sustainability. However, if “thought food” is a key component of Italian culture, a sustainable strategy on local food systems was still lacking. In the course of Universal Expo 2015, Milan therefore started to develop specific policies targeted on the theme of food as strategic asset for urban local policies. In fact, by promoting the MUFPP, the City of Milan adopted a shared and coordinated food policy, engaging other signatory cities towards a more sustainable and fair urban development. It is evident that food is the key driver of every action presented in this best practice: food for the regeneration of suburban areas focusing on its valorisation as a factor of change, for the promotion of innovative entrepreneurship targeting the agri-food sector in particular, and food as means of fostering international cooperation, and sustainable and fair urban policies.

    Based on a participatory approach

    A quadruple helix approach was adopted by the City of Milan to confront the challenges presented by the good practice, processing a multi-level governance model. The stakeholders involved in the actions related to the implementation of the food policy and urban regeneration are mostly local actors with a solid experience in food and management, such as: Cariplo foundation, a private philanthropic grant-providing organisation; Milan Catering, which provides food for the city's school canteens; Metropolitana Milanese, responsible for public water supply; the Milanese Agricultural District, which established a special agricultural cooperative consortium to promote agricultural activities and support SMEs in the food sector; Parco Tecnologico Padano (PTP Science and Technology Park), the leading Italian Science and Technology Park operating in the agro-food sector and its incubator Alimenta; the University of Milan and Milan Polytechnic University, providing both scientific and academic support; Cineca, Avanzi Srl and Impattozero Srl involved as scientific partners; Future Food Institute as developer of food fab-labs blending culinary tools with 3D printers; two charities, Sungal and La Strada Social Cooperative; and the cultural association Dynamosopio, involved in the regeneration of Lorenteggio market, implementing activities of cultural and social interest for the people living in that suburban area.

    What difference has it made?

    Thanks to this good practice, the City of Milan improved its administrative procedures and problem-solving strategies with an integrative method. In fact, the municipality enhanced its approach in facing urban issues by starting to analyse problems, then implementing an integrated approach to solving these issues through the involvement of different levels of local government, actors and stakeholders that could provide support to find appropriate solutions. Through the development of the local food policy, the promotion and signature of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, an innovative model of governance was introduced in order to make the City more sustainable, promoting the values of social inclusion, environmental sustainability, fair trade, decentralised cooperation, change of life habits and the fight against poverty. In addition, the practice shows the potentiality of food policies in improving some needy districts of the city, regenerating urban areas (i.e Cascina Nosedo farmhouse as the future new hub of the area), and fostering the entrepreneurial development of innovative agro-food SMEs and start-ups.

    Why should other European cities use it?

    The good practice of Milan could be of great value and importance for other European cities, because it tackles common urban problems and issues experienced by a wide range of municipalities throughout Europe, proposing concrete and sustainable solutions through an integrated urban approach. Moreover, the practice raised awareness on challenges and opportunities of urban food policy, underlining the importance of food waste reduction, the promotion of healthy diets, the purchase of food produced in a sustainable way, and the respect of human rights and worker dignity. The regeneration of suburban areas is a common challenge of many European cities where Milan's good practice could be also applied. Similarly, the valorisation of food as changing factor for the development of local innovative enterprises is an important asset for cities, leading to a smart growth that improves the life of citizens. All actions related to the good practice focus on concrete problems experienced by cities, giving a practical answer to these issues in an integrated and sustainable approach. Some good practices of food policies have already been successfully developed by MUFPP signatory cities, as shown in the enclosed booklet “MUFPP Good Practice”, in particular for general healthy nutrition and a careful management of resources to avoid food waste.

    Is a transfer practice
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    Ref nid
    9538
  • When unused and empty spaces become the centres of social inclusion

    Romania
    Vaslui

    How a city can smartly use its abandoned spaces to respond to citizens' needs

    Stefan Dudău
    Counselor
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    55 407

    Summary

    Confronted with social challenges, like increasing number of elderly, disabled people, and children whose parents work abroad, the City of Vaslui (RO) started a comprehensive process of rehabilitation of six of the former power plants that were heating the city neighbourhoods. These were transformed into six day care centres right in the heart of the biggest neighbourhoods of the city, serving directly a total of 300 elderly people, 15 young students and their families, and also offering a properly equipped auditorium open for any of the 14 000 students, NGOs or other cultural associations.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    Hidden among city blocks of flats, the former neighbourhood power plants that were heating the communist flats, remained one by one without their main utility, since the centralised heating system has become technically outdated, thus, most users gave up on this service and chose individual heating systems. As a consequence of this phenomenon, at a local level, from a total of 27 heating power plants, only 6 are still working. The other 21 nonfunctional buildings, besides their unaesthetic aspect, were presenting a high risk of danger for health and safety of the citizens. Vaslui Municipality sought for solutions to address the identified problems, and in this regard, in collaboration with Vaslui Local Council, started a comprehensive process of rehabilitation and destination change for these locations.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    As poverty increases so does the risk of concentration of urban vulnerable and marginalised groups in deprived areas, which are characterised by social segregation, stigmatisation, reduced mobility, limited access to credit, housing deprivation and not only environmental degradation but reduced public spending on its prevention. Addressing vulnerable and marginalised groups has a direct impact on local municipal budgets, due for example to intense use of enabling support services and local benefits/subsidies allocated to alleviate poverty. It is therefore no surprise that combating the related social/spatial segregation was identified by stakeholders at the city level as one of the key priorities that the Vaslui Municipality should target. The proposed strategies are contributing to the socio-economic inclusion of particular vulnerable and marginalised groups. The actions done will allow lasting and sustainable solutions for major societal challenges in the city in general through the establishment of innovative policy frameworks, action plans, pilot actions and follow up activities.

    Based on a participatory approach

    The growing social and economic inequalities are reflected in a reduced quality of urban life. To overcome these challenges the Municipality involved the targeted groups in participatory activities to tackle socio-economic exclusion for defining the best actions and plans to be developed. Development of the daycare centres and the activities performed within were a result of the multiple discussions had with the targeted beneficiaries. The scope was to assure a maximum level of satisfaction of the vulnerable/marginalised groups and integrate them into decision-making processes. These actions are also a result of a broad participatory process undertaken within the development of the critical documents related to sustainable urban development: "Local Development Strategy Vaslui" (2009) and "Pole Metropolitan Development Strategy 2014-2020 Vaslui" (2014). The process involved local government structures, local council and relevant local community stakeholders (NGOs and associations, businesses, public institutions, experts from various fields, ordinary citizens, vulnerable/marginalised groups). The objective was to have a participatory approach in governance and planning, as concerns the exclusion of vulnerable/marginalised groups from social life and economic opportunities, and sustainable urban development. In this way, a common participatory methodology was created which can be successfully replicated in other cities and areas.

    What difference has it made?

    If we are talking about the Day centre for elderly „Buna Vestire”, the Day centre for elderly „Sfântul Nicolae”, The Club for retired persons, and the „Prietenia” club, almost 300 persons benefit directly from the investments done, the offered services vary from social and leisure activities, individual and group counselling, social counselling, medical and social assistance, moral and emotional support, and catering services. The cultural centre „Alexandra Nechita”, due to its purpose to offer for free an adequate space for cultural activities, we can say that it serves all of our 14 000 school students, NGOs and the local cultural associations. The day centre for schoolchildren „Bucuria” (Happiness) offers guidance for 15 children and their families.

    Why should other European cities use it?

    The integration of vulnerable and marginalised groups into social life and economic activities has a huge impact on the Vaslui Municipality. It generates costs in terms of direct loss of productivity and contributions to the public purse or through side effects such as increased social tensions, probability of poor health and socio-spatial segregations. Vaslui Municipality is in a unique position in Romania to address this challenge with the new governance tools and strategies. It wants to enhance mechanisms to take decisions that are closest to most citizens. As the EU gradually moves out of the economic crisis it should be remembered that almost half of the EU's population lives in cities and that urban agglomerations are the main drivers for innovation, competitiveness and economic development across Europe. Vaslui therefore has a key role to play in creating and supporting the right conditions for innovative actions in a Romanian context that lead to more and better social and economic integration of communities at risk of exclusion.

    Is a transfer practice
    0
    Ref nid
    9512
  • Playful paradigm makes the healthy choice the enjoyable choice

    Italy
    Udine

    “Play” as innovative concept for promoting social inclusion, healthy lifestyles, energy awareness, place-making and economic prosperity

    Bruno Grizzaffi
    European Projects and Participation Operational Unit
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    100 170
    • Adapted by the Playful Paradigm Transfer Network
    • and by the Playful Paradigm Second Wave pilot

    Summary

    The Municipality of Udine  has developed an urban practice focusing on the use of play as a flexible, innovative place-making paradigm to Develop an equitable and democratic society. Play is used as a vehicle for addressing healthy lifestyles and energy awareness; it fosters the inclusion of migrants, the involvement of elderly people and promotes a better relationship between parents and children. Playful places such as the Municipal Toy Library and its public park, the Energy in Play annual fair, the Traveling Toy Bus, World Games Day and Pi Day, have contributed to the improvement of urban places in Udine and raised awareness of health, energy and sustainability issues.

    The solutions offered by the good practice

    The “Playful Paradigm” initiatives is part of a comprehensive strategy that the Municipality has been implementing for more than 20 years under the umbrella of the Healthy Cities Project (World Health Organization), the European Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, while being the  leading city of the Italian Playful Cities Movement (GIONA). From 2013 to 2015, Udine was the Lead Partner of the URBACT Healthy Ageing Project, tackling a topic, which particularly concerns its population (Udine has an old age index of 217), where playfulness has been an important aspect.

     

    The solution proposed stems from using ‘games’ as a flexible and innovative co-creating place-making paradigm, in addressing the needs of an actively ageing, energy aware, equitable and democratic society.

     

    Evidence shows that it is easier to learn and establish relations through playing, because cultural differences or physical and cognitive deficiencies, or mere unawareness, can be easily compensated by emotional reactions.  The experience in Udine started with tiny temporary educational initiatives such as the Ludobus (a mobile toy library a project promoted nation wide in the early 2000s), which then has been permanently turned into a The toy library, an intergenerational meeting point in the city center. The toy Library has welcomed since 2013 by 40 000 visitors becoming the actual hub of q rich programme of play-related initiatives the city has launched e.g. CamminaMenti – Move your minds run in community centers for dementia prevention and inclusion of elderly people, the Energy in Play annual Fair, the World Games Day, Pi Day, Darwin Day, The library of living books, etc. Because of this experience in 2017 with the support of Regional Funds, Udine launched the Italian National Games Archive establishing the first Italian classification of traditional and modern games, relying also on crowd sourcing in the coming years. Most recently, Udine has launched a project to fight gambling by promoting a toolkit of “healthy” games replacing “slot-machines”, the latter more and more invading bars, pubs and restaurants hooking the population especially in deprived urban areas.

     

    Overall, the municipality has adopted a light touch policy based on “playing” that crosses all departments and programmes giving a new twist to the concept of social inclusion, education and place making that is a novelty for many European cities.

    Building on the sustainable and integrated approach

    Health, energy and literacy awareness are pursued through playful initiatives aimed at developing a sustainable urban living, fostering learning attitudes, and enabling citizens regardless of age, ethnic origin, income, gender orientation or ability. The playful paradigm, which integrates top-down policies and spontaneous bottom-up actions called also “middle-out approach” in the Udine URBQCT good practice, triggers collateral initiatives akin to co-generative welfare. The holistic feature of games naturally induces an integrated and participative approach. This paradigm has allowed Udine to boost the many existing grass-root initiatives which promote sports, physical activity, healthy and eco-friendly lifestyles, channeling them towards the overall health and sustainability goals of the municipality and involving all citizens, not just militants.
    The practice has thus achieved a vertical integration between different levels of government. Health and sustainability have become the 'lingua franca', i.e. the universal language, for carrying out city health and energy diplomacy, thus establishing relations and building partnerships with stakeholders within the city (non-profit organizations and public-private sectors), but also with other cities and regional and national authorities e.g. the creation of the National Games Archive, and the many transnational network Udine is involved in.

    Based on a participatory approach

    Over the years, Udine has implemented an integrated strategy for promoting physical, mental and relational well-being as well as ecological awareness in all policies. This approach has been applied by capitalizing on spontaneous bottom-up initiatives, building trustful alliances and partnerships within the community. In the Playful Paradigm approach, municipalities do not only act supportively of bottom-up suggestions and initiatives, but as catalysts of a broader societal engagement: the Municipality of Udine plays the role of social broker and mediator, facilitating networking among local stakeholders, and gently nudging their often idiosyncratic vision into a more coordinated, systematic and strategic framework. City health diplomacy plays a crucial role in this process, negotiating different interests towards a common goal, thus also avoiding the silo syndrome. The inter-sectoral participatory process is witnessed in Udine by the comprehensive programmes developed and co-created over the years, catalyzing and engaging a great number of different stakeholders. The whole-of-government, whole-of-society and health-in-all-policies approaches promoted by WHO within the Healthy Cities Movement was the inspiring principle.

    What difference has it made?

    Results have contributed to the improvement of urban places, and to awareness about health, energy and sustainability, with programmes and initiatives co-created using playing as the main paradigm. All these engage more than 3000 people per year.
    Associations from the private and public sector are engaged to co-design and raise awareness on energy efficiency, reducing CO2 emissions through initiatives in the main squares of the city. A wide range of offers is at hand for everyone in community centers, Move your minds (CamminaMenti), university, public library, municipal Toy Library.
    Non-profit and for-profit organizations offer music therapy, laughter yoga, anti-ageing games and creative thinking for combating cognitive decline and solitude. World Games Day: over 50 associations, small enterprises revolving around playing in all its different facets. Pi Day begins a little before 16.00 hrs on March 14 and brings together associations, individuals, schools to foster mathematics and scientific literacy. "You don't stop laughing because you grow old, you grow old because you stop laughing": workshops for health/social professionals improve the quality of life of elderly people. Energy at school, healthy eating, and food waste programmes: school programmes for educating children on sustainable consumption, carbon-blue-water-footprints, and healthy food. Eco-orienteering: different population groups experience the city by exploring cultural, social and historical aspects of places through treasure hunting.

    Transferring the practice

    The Playful Paradigm Transfer Network led by the Municipality of Udine demonstrated how much play could help cities to improve their capacity to leverage on health, wellbeing, and social innovation. The process of transferring within the network started with the lunching in different localities the simple project of the Ludobus, a colorful bus carrying games from the Ludoteca -the games library- all around the city. Using this project as leverage to link up other initiatives game oriented that could involve different sector of public life and education (see the toolkits produced during the lifetime of the network).

     

    The 2020 pandemic situation during the lifetime of the network pushed towards integration of the digital environment in the built and physical spaces. By the end of the project, and with the limitations of the lockdowns, Udine tested a new approach to engage citizens and small groups of tourists through a virtual urban game inspired by        an ancient game with dice and pawns exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of the city. The scope was to increase the knowledge and experience of cultural heritages and those historic urban places, more or less visible, which witness the history of a city/region/country.

    Is a transfer practice
    1
    Ref nid
    9531