Error message

  • User error: "id" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "name" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "picture" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "url" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "id" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "name" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "picture" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "url" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "id" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "name" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 66)
    __TwigTemplate_949d449354140b22de465a6ce0ba0913->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
    __TwigTemplate_4ab2402e670f0380ba158519814cd5ce->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 238)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 231)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
    Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
    call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
    Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
    Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 32)
    Drupal\big_pipe\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
    Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 49)
    Drupal\remove_http_headers\StackMiddleware\RemoveHttpHeadersMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
    Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
    Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)
    
  • User error: "picture" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
    Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
    Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
    Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 114)
    __TwigTemplate_46a2a91b4a29f97cd9b2cccd02607f4b->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
    Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
    Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
    Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
    Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
    twig_render_template('themes/custom/urbact/templates/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
    Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
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  • URBACT takes stock of 2023

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    Viladecans EU City Lab - site visit
    11/12/2023

    For URBACT, this has been a year of new beginnings with new networks, people, partnerships and landmark events!  

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    Site visit during the EU City Lab in Viladecans (ES).
    From urbact
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    Before shifting focus to a new year and new priorities, URBACT looks back on the touchstones and flashpoints that have taken the programme to new thematic and geographic heights. You will also find some hints about what’s in store for 2024.

     

    1. URBACT approves 1st round of Action Planning Networks

     

    A total of 254 project partners have joined the URBACT IV Programme, following the approval of 30 Action Planning Networks by the programme’s Monitoring Committee. The new beneficiaries primarily represent small and medium-sized cities across 28 European countries. From the technical to the practical, the holistic to the segmented: these project partners will develop Integrated Action Plans to tackle common local challenges.  

    Get a glimpse of the 30 networks whose topics range from sustainable mobility plans for urban and rural areas, place-based climate action and digital inclusion, to industrial renewal, migrant support, gender equality, green growth and public procurement.

     

    2. URBACT University welcomes the class of 2023

     

    From 28-30 August, the URBACT University was held in Malmö (SE). The 2023 edition marked the first in-person gathering of 430 partners from the recently approved Action Planning Networks.  

    Following in the footsteps of previous editions, this year’s landmark capacity-building event provided participants with tools and guidance on how to better define their local challenges and vision for change with the help of civil society. On day 1, participants got familiar with tools like the Problem Tree and the Newspaper of Tomorrow, followed by stakeholder mapping and engagement on day 2, and a new tool (the Action Planning Canvas) on day 3

    Get the main takeaways and watch the video for more highlights, including a bike tour of Malmö’s sustainable urban development initiatives! 

    The URBACT University 2023 was one of a kind, but not the first of its kind. Looking ahead to 2024, national campus events will take place for network beneficiaries. 

    URBACT university days 3rd day

     

    3. URBACT plugs in to the 1st EU City Lab

     

    From 23-24 November, the first EU City Lab on Energy Transition was held in Viladecans (ES). This thematic event, co-organised by URBACT and the European Urban Initiative (EUI), is part of a series of labs aiming to bring together stakeholders from local, national and EU levels to increase their knowledge on good practices related to energy, food and other related urban challenges. 

    This event gathered energy specialists and representatives  from European cities. The packed two-day agenda featured presentations from Viladecans’ Deputy Mayor Jordi Mazon, representatives from URBACT, the EUI, the European Energy Research Alliance and valuable insights on local learning practices, energy communities and governance. The walking tours were a highlight of the event programme, featuring site visits to the Vilawatt energy company, municipal buildings, the municipal market and Enxaneta School. 

    Vilawatt

     

    How will the EU City Labs help cities face pressing societal and environmental challenges? Read the article and take note of upcoming topics. Starting in March 2024 in Mouans-Sartoux (FR), the next EU City Lab will cover cities’ role in changing behaviours when it comes to food production and consumption. More topics are still to come! 

     

    4. URBACT National Points put words into action 

     

    The URBACT Method is all about providing cities with the tools and support to address local challenges. Yet, it’s not a surprise that language can present a barrier to these types of cross-border exchanges.  

    Over the last year, 25 National URBACT Points (NUPs) have sprung into action supporting local partners in European cities and, most recently, in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia under the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA).  

    This year, most of the National URBACT Points were appointed to also act as Urban Contact Points for the European Urban Initiative, providing a common line of information for both entities in their respective countries.   

    Find your NUP on the URBACT website or search for ‘@URBACT_country abbreviation’ on social media. 

     

    5. The URBACT Secretariat welcomes new faces 

     

    This year, as every year, the URBACT team is here to support cities. Now with 16 staff members, the Secretariat is working at full speed, and the team is still growing! Find a familiar or a fresh face here.  

    Interested in driving change for better cities? Check out the latest opportunities here to join the URBACT team. 

    URBACT Secretariat group picture during the URBACT University Days in Malmö (Sweden)

     

     

    The future is calling…for more URBACT networks! 

     

    Lots more activities to come, the first being the URBACT call for Innovation Transfer Networks (ITNs) opening on 10 January 2024. Through these networks, cities previously funded under the Urban Innovative Actions initiative will be sharing their innovative projects with other cities across the EU as well as in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.  

    Interested in transferring an innovative project in your city? Get a taste of what to expect and go to urbact.eu/get-involved on 10 January to learn even more. Last but not least, save the date for the first online info session on 16 January

    ITN call 2023

     

     


     

  • Cities paving the way for a circular transition

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    LETS GO CIRCULAR! Graphic Recording by Lead Expert Eleni Feleki with main aspects: enable, serve support
    06/12/2023

    In 2020 and in line with the Communication on the European Green Deal, the European Commission adopted the new Circular Economy Action Plan (CEAP 2). The ultimate goal is to stimulate markets for climate-neutral and circular products and services, modernize the EU’s economy and reap the benefits of the transition in the EU and beyond. The seven key areas set by the Commission CEAP 2 to achieve a circular economy are exactly plastics, textiles, e-waste, food, water and nutrients, packaging, batteries and vehicles, buildings and construction.

    enable, serve, support

    LET'S GO CIRCULAR! graphic by lead expert Eleni Feleki on the main aspects of circular cities.

    Network
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    Off

    Where do we stand?

    Meeting the target of doubling the circularity material use rate (CMUR), meaning increase from 11.7% in 2021 to 23.4% by 2030, is rather unlikely, considering the very slight increase in the CMUR in the previous decade, no increase at all between 2020 and 2021 and projections by the OECD predicting an increased future demand for materials in the EU by 2030. The latter is important, since increasing recycling alone will not allow the EU to achieve the target. Increased recycling coupled with reduced material use would be required.

    Nevertheless, there are weaknesses in the monitoring framework of the circular economy. Moreover, circular economy notion is still very much linked to waste management instead of reflecting different R-strategies, and most importantly reduction.
     

    Some key facts

    The EU generates more than 2.5 billion tons of waste a year. TEU exports of waste to non-EU countries reached 32.7 million tons in 2020.

    The majority of shipped waste consists of ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap as well as paper, plastic, textile and glass wastes and mainly goes to Turkey, India and Egypt

    Electronic and electrical waste, or e-waste, is the fastest growing waste stream in the EU; less than 40% is recycled

    An estimated 20% of food is lost or wasted in the EU

    Packaging waste in Europe reached a record high in 2017

    Construction accounts for more than 35% of total EU waste

    More than 20% of energy consumed in the EU comes from renewable sources

    77% of EU consumers would rather repair their goods than buy new ones, but ultimately have to replace or discard them because of the cost of repairs and lack of service provided.

    Sectors not covered by the current Emissions Trading System – such as transport, agriculture, buildings and waste management – still account for about 60% of the EU’s overall emissions

    In 2021 alone, existing ecodesign requirements saved consumers €120 billion. The rules have also led to a 10% lower annual energy consumption by the products in scope.

    EU forests absorb the equivalent of nearly 7% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions each year.
     

    Why are cities important for circular economy?
    The challenges

    Cities are at the centre of key decisions determining economic growth, social well-being, and environmental benefits. Despite taking up just 2% of global landmass, our urban centres consume more than 75% of natural resources, are responsible for over 50% of solid waste, represent almost two-thirds of global energy demand and emit up to 60% of greenhouse gases, contributing to pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss. A total of 80% of food is consumed in cities.

    Moreover, by 2050, the global population will reach 9 billion people, 55% of which will be living in cities, high-density places of at least 50 000 inhabitants. The pressure on natural resources will increase, while new infrastructure, services and housing will be needed. It is estimated that globally by 2050, the levels of municipal solid waste will double. At the same time, water stress and water consumption will increase by 55% by 2050.

    Acknowledging the challenges, developments in circular manufacturing, fashion, transport, food, and procurement are already being led from urban areas. Now is the time to take full advantage of the wealth of opportunities in cities to create a system that can work long-term for the economy, society, and the environment.
    The URBACT ‘’LET’S GO CIRCULAR!’’ Network

    The potential of the circular economy to support sustainable cities still needs to be unlocked and the URBACT “LET’S GO CIRCULAR! – Paving the way for a circular transition of cities” Network funded by the URBACT programme, aims to act towards this direction.

    Group Picutre of the LET'S GO CIRCULAR! network in Munich


    With Munich as Lead Partner, the URBACT “LET’S GO CIRCULAR! – Paving the way for a circular transition of cities” Network started in June 2023. The cities that take part in the network, apart from Munich, include Cluj-Napoca in Romania, the Greek island of Corfu, Granada in Spain, Malmö in Sweden, Riga in Latvia, Oulu in Finland, as well as Guimarães and Lisbon in Portugal. Tirana is involved in Albania as an IPA partner.
     

    The circular city as envisioned by the URBACT
    “LET’S GO CIRCULAR!’’ Network

    In our understanding and line with the Mac Arthur Foundation, a circular city has embedded the principles of the circular economy across the entire urban area and operationalizes the 10R-ladder. Products, services, infrastructure, buildings, and vehicles are designed to be durable, adaptable, modular, easy to maintain, share and repurpose, and locally sourced and serving consumption.

    A circular city is powered by renewable energy resources. Food waste is eliminated and left-overs are minimized and composted. Businesses operate in a symbiotic model while the city administration acts as an ambassador that inspires, teaches and spreads the appropriate narratives to the citizens in order to change their mindset and value pre-owned goods. Construction and demolition materials can be reused, or recycled. All stakeholders act synergistically, closing the loop of materials and rethinking services and ownership. Air emissions are reduced and nature is flourishing.

    Our approach on the circular city concept is illustrated below.

    LET'S GO CIRCULAR! circular city model by lead expert Eleni Feleki


    According to our Network, local authorities have a transformational role in circular economy that implies a systemic shift, whereby: services (e.g. from water to waste and energy) are provided making efficient use of natural resources as primary materials and optimising their reuse; economic activities are planned and carried out in a way to close, slow and narrow loops across value chains; and infrastructures are designed and built to avoid linear lock-in (e.g. district heating, smart grid, etc.).

    Moreover, cities (and regions) hold core competencies for most policy areas underlying the circular economy; city governments can engage, incentivise, manage, and set a regulatory framework to set the enabling conditions for cities fit for the 21st century to emerge. They can set a direction of travel, a local urban agenda, and a roadmap in line with national and European goals. By embedding circular economy principles into urban policy levers, cities can bring about changes to the use and management of materials in cities; and urban priorities around access to housing, mobility and economic development can also be met in a way that supports prosperity, jobs, health, and communities. Changes to material choices, uses and management, can also open up local production opportunities. For solid waste, cities exercise powers in collection, treatment, cleaning, as well as in communication and information. Most importantly, local authorities can raise the awareness of the citizens at any age, educational level, or background about the principles of circular economy and pave the way for every citizen to have access to circular solutions. In this respect, local authorities can play a fundamental role in educating entrepreneurs, especially the ones involved in the seven important sectors identified by the CEAP 2. Even more significantly, local authorities can teach and enhance industrial symbiosis, especially by practicing an communicating their paradigm of urban symbiosis. Change of mindsets and behavior towards more sustainable choices is definitely an area that local authorities can thrive.

    LET'S GO CIRCULAR! at a glance - by lead expert Eleni Feleki


    We will explore all our potential to transform our cities, as part of the URBACT ‘’LET’S GO CIRCULAR!’’ Network.

    Stay tuned for more insights to come in the next 2 years!

    #circulareconomy #bettercities #circularcities #sustainableurbandevelopment #localauthorities

    Visit here for more information about the URBACT LET'S GO CIRCULAR! Network

    Find our project on LinkedIn

  • LET'S GO CIRCULAR!

    LEAD PARTNER : Munich - Germany
    • Riga - Latvia
    • Cluj Metropolitan Area - Intercommunity Development Association - Romania
    • Guimarães - Portugal
    • Kapodistriaki Development S.A. - Greece
    • Granada - Spain
    • Oulu - Finland
    • Lisboa E-Nova Agência de Energia e Ambiente de Lisboa - Portugal
    • Malmö - Sweden
    • Tirana - Albania

    Timeline

    First transnational meeting on 25-27 September 2023  in Munich, Germany: Kick-off and best practices (sustainable mass tourism, industry programs and repair cafe/second hand department store)

    2nd transnational meeting on 5-9 February in Guimarães and Lisbon, Portugal: Governance, innovation, methodologies (circular economy commitments, governance, education, tools)

    Lead Expert

     

     

    LET‘S GO CIRCULAR! network is paving the way for a sustainable, just and productive transition of cities towards a functioning Circular Economy. It addresses all issues relevant to a holistic strategy of circular city ecosystems, fostering innovative solutions. The concept of the 10 R Ladder (from REFUSE to RECOVER) serves as an underlying principle for the action planning. 

    Paving the way for a circular transition of cities
  • Key highlights from the URBACT University 2023

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    12/09/2023

    Remember the main takeaways and highpoints from the event in Malmö (SE).

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    Interested in learning more about the URBACT tools? Check out the Toolbox and read all about the University in Malmö, particularly on the action-planning processes of:

     

     

    Network
    From urbact
    On

    The URBACT University made its big return in Malmö, from 28 to 30 August 2023 for more than 400 city representatives involved in the 30 recently approved Action Planning Networks. Since its first edition in 2011, the event was established as a programme capacity-building milestone.

    Designed for local stakeholders from URBACT beneficiary cities, the event aims to provide concrete examples and insights as to how the URBACT Method can be put into practice, so participants can go back home ready to set up their URBACT Local Groups and experiment solutions to co-develop their own local Integrated Action Plans.

     

     

    Find out what was in stock for the participants during these three special days!

     

    1. Trying out the URBACT Method and tools

     

    URBACT University Malmo 2023 - using tools
    Participants with their hands on the Problem Tree tool.

    Once a day, for more than one hour, participants were introduced to techniques and tools that would not only help them create and maintain their URBACT Local Groups, but also to truly understand their local challenges, develop collective visions and plan actions to achieve their objectives. Split in hubs with different networks, discussions were then held in an enabling and safe space for exchange. Participants then moved to the Network@Work sessions, where within smaller groups, they did practical exercises and put into practice the lessons learnt on analysing problems and envisioning scenarios, getting all stakeholders on board and, finally, planning integrated actions.

    All the materials that were used are available in the URBACT Toolbox and they will definitely come at hand during the action-planning journey. As one participant, Øystein Leonardsen from the City of Copenhagen (DK) said, "the more tools you have in your own toolbox, the better equipped you are to face different challenges". After all, if you only have a hammer at hand, all the problems you will encounter will be handled in the same way, regardless of any complexity or specific cause. "With a hammer, all you can do is to hit nails on the head". 

     

    2. Meeting with peers from all over Europe

     

    For many of the people who are involved with the newly approved round of Action Planning Networks, the URBACT University was the first time ever they could meet with all their project partners. Besides many coffee breaks and opportunities to chat, participants had the unique chance to be closer to their networks, notably during the Network@Work sessions. As Clémentine Gravier, Head of Unit - Networks and Capacity-Building at the URBACT Secretariat, said "after two editions of the URBACT e-Universities online, one in 2020 and another one in 2022, it was nice to finally be able to organise this in-person capacity-building event. The truth is nothing can beat real-life exchanges and learning from each other over three days".

     

     

    3. Experiencing a low carbon event

     

    URBACT University Malmo 2023 - recycled badges and lanyards
    Collection of the URBACT lanyards for recycling.

    It is no news that URBACT has a taste for low carbon events, this year’s University was no exception. With an entirely plant-based menu, measures were taken to prevent food waste. As some might have noticed, leftovers were safely re-used in different meals. Also, by supporting and campaigning for soft means of transportation, the programme has effectively encouraged participants to step out of their comfort zone. One participant partially biked from Rotterdam (NL) to Malmö (SE), while many others traveled by train, including a participant from Liège (BE).

    Other than all the nice memories, new knowledge and the beautiful badges made of recycled paper full of wildflower seeds ready to plant, participants did not take anything else back home. Even the lanyards of the badges were left behind to be re-used for future URBACT events. Unlike previous URBACT Universities, no goodies or merchandises were offered. All the carbon footprint of the URBACT University will be measured and will be offset with financial compensations to afforestation projects and other green local initiatives.

     

    4. Discovering Malmö's corners

     

    On the very first plenary of the event, participants were warmly welcomed by Sofia Héden, Deputy Mayor for Environment and Internal services at the Malmö Municipality. During this session they also learnt that the main venue of the URBACT University, the Malmö Arena, will host next year’s edition of the Eurovision competition. This is just one among many interesting things that the city has lined up.

    URBACT University Malmo 2023 site visit

    Participants at the train station ready for the "Attractive and active: Malmö's recipe for a vibrant city" site visit.

    As in any URBACT University, the hosting city is a feature of the event itself. The programme takes great pride in showcasing local initiatives, existing projects and future plans. Malmö, in particular, has long been an URBACT beneficiary. The city was involved with the RESILIENT EUROPE (2015 – 2018) and the LET’S GO CIRCULAR (2023 – 2026) Action Planning Networks, both very environmental-led networks.

    During the afternoon of the second day, participants had a glimpse of some of the cities’ hidden gems. Unsurprisingly, among the 12 site visits people could choose from, the majority focused on circular economy. But a few exceptions included the urban regeneration of the old and new parts of the harbour; gender equality and placemaking; and entrepreneurship and migrants’ integration.

     

    5. Having plenty of surprises

     

    URBACT University Malmo 2023 - National URBACT Points on stage
    The National URBACT Points' team has also taken up the stage.

    As Eddy Adams, URBACT Methods and Tools’ Expert, mentioned during the event, his favourite part of Universities is the element of surprise. From Action Planning Networks taking over the stage to strike poses and taking pictures, to unexpected settings behind the curtains, the URBACT University in Malmö was not short on surprises. Even some of the National URBACT Points had a special part to play. Disguised as mayors coming from different EU countries, they visited participants’ sessions and invited them to consider the crosscutting themes of green, digital and gender to their reflections.

    The event even counted with a rooftop unexpected dance class, something that alongside the new connections that were created, and the knowledge and skills that were acquired, will not be forgotten any time soon.

     

     

     

    URBACT University Malmo 2023 dancing in the rooftop

    Swing dance class on the rooftop on the last day of the URBACT University.

     

     

     


     

  • Universidad URBACT 2023, Malmö (Suecia)

    La Universidad URBACT reúne a cientos de entusiastas de la ciudad. Destinada a los agentes locales que participan en las redes recientemente aprobadas, la Universidad URBACT forma parte de la oferta del programa para ayudar a los beneficiarios a navegar por el ciclo de planificación de acciones.

    Al proporcionar herramientas, ejemplos concretos e ideas sobre cómo las ciudades pueden poner en práctica el método URBACT, las partes interesadas hacen balance de lo que aprenden a lo largo de los tres días que dura el evento. Así pueden volver a casa bien equipados y preparados para crear y mantener sus Grupos Locales URBACT. Junto con estos grupos, municipios de toda Europa co-diseñarán y pondrán a prueba soluciones prácticas para sus propios Planes de Acción Integrada locales.

    Las ediciones anteriores incluyeron las Universidades de Verano de Rotterdam (2016), Dublín (2013) y Cracovia (2011). La Universidad de este año será acogida por la ciudad sueca de Malmö y los participantes tendrán la oportunidad de explorar iniciativas locales, proyectos de economía circular y mucho más. Todo ello además de enriquecedoras sesiones metodológicas.

     

    Sweden

    ¡La Universidad URBACT está de vuelta!
    Organizada en Malmö, Suecia, del 28 al 30 de agosto, este evento de desarrollo de capacidades está dedicado a los representantes de las ciudades que forman parte de las nuevas Action Planning Networks de URBACT.

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  • Uniwersytet Letni 2023

    Uniwersytet URBACT 2023 to wydarzenie szkoleniowe dla obecnych przedstawicieli miast URBACT z całej Europy, które odbędzie się w Malmö (Szwecja) od poniedziałku 28 sierpnia do środy 30 sierpnia 2023 roku. Ma ono na celu przygotowanie i wyposażenie do 500 praktyków miejskich zaangażowanych w Sieci Planowania Działań URBACT w kompetencje przydatne do opracowywania Zintegrowanych Planów Działania w celu stymulowania zmian w miastach. Szkolenie będzie prowadzone w języku angielskim.
     

    Co zyskasz uczestnicząc w szkoleniu?

     

    Dołączenie do Uniwersytetu URBACT rozpocznie Waszą przygodę z URBACT i przygotuje Was do kolejnych etapów wyprawy w ramach Sieci Planowania Działań. Rozwiniecie swoje umiejętności zawodowe i poznasz różnorodne narzędzia pomocne w opracowaniu Zintegrowanego Planu Działania. Po raz pierwszy osobiście spotkacie się z partnerami Waszych sieci i nawiążecie kontakty z wieloma europejskimi miastami. Wzmocnicie swoje umiejętności w zakresie partycypacyjnego i zintegrowanego kształtowania polityk miejskich, a wszystko to w twórczej, warsztatowej atmosferze.  

    Przygotujcie się do kreowania rozwiązań i wprowadzania zmian w Waszych miastach!
     

    Kto powinien się zarejestrować?

     

    Miasta i eksperci wiodący wszystkich zatwierdzonych Sieci Planowania Działań są zobowiązani do wzięcia udziału w wydarzeniu. Biorąc pod uwagę ograniczoną liczbę miejsc, prosimy o podjęcie decyzji o wyborze swoich przedstawicieli. Pierwszeństwo będą mieli:

        Partnerzy Wiodący obecnych Sieci Planowania Działań mogą zarejestrować 2 osoby na wydarzenie

        Partnerzy Projektu obecnych Sieci Planowania Działań powinni wyznaczyć jednego głównego przedstawiciela, który zarejestruje się na wydarzenie. Jako partner projektu możecie również wyznaczyć drugiego przedstawiciela do udziału, który może zostać przyjęty, jeśli okaże się, że będą wolne miejsca na wydarzenie.

        Eksperci Wiodący obecnych Sieci Planowania Działań URBACT

        Krajowe Punkty URBACT: jeden przedstawiciel na kraj

     

    Będziecie uczestniczyć w praktycznych szkoleniach, więc wymagana jest aktywna postawa i dobry poziom języka angielskiego!
    Zarejestrujcie się szybko, liczba miejsc jest ograniczona!

     

    Zaproszenie do rejestracji zostanie wkrótce wysłane do grupy docelowej wydarzenia.

    Sweden
    Uniwersytet URBACT powraca!
    Odbywające się w Malmö w Szwecji w dniach 28-30 sierpnia wydarzenie poświęcone jest budowaniu potencjału przedstawicieli miast z nowych sieci planowania działań URBACT.

    Wydarzenie tylko dla uczestników obecnych Sieci URBACT

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  • URBACT University 2023

    The URBACT University 2023 is a capacity-building event for current URBACT cities’ representatives from all over Europe which will take place in Malmö (Sweden) from Monday 28 August to Wednesday 30 August 2023. It is designed to equip up to 500 city practitioners involved in URBACT Action Planning Networks with competences useful for developing Integrated Action Plans to drive change in your cities. The training will be delivered in English.
     

    What will you gain by attending? 

     

    Joining the URBACT University will kick-start your URBACT adventure and prepare you for the next steps of your Action Planning Network journey. You will develop your professional skills and get to know a variety of tools helpful to develop your Integrated Action Plan. You will meet your network partners in person for the first time and develop contacts with many European cities. Ultimately, you will strengthen your skills in participatory and integrated policy-making, all in a playful, creative learning environment.  

    Prepare to make an impact and become a change maker for your city! 
     

    Who should register? 

     

    Cities and Lead Experts of all approved Action Planning Networks are required to attend the event. Given limited available seats, please decide locally on your representatives. Priority will be given to: 

    • Lead Partners of current Action Planning Networks can register 2 people to the event 

    • Project Partners of current Action Planning Networks should designate one primary representative to register for the event. As a Project Partner you can also nominate a second representative to register who might be accepted if there are remaining spots left for the event.

    • Lead Experts of the current URBACT Action Planning Networks 

    • National URBACT Points: one representative per country 

     

    You will experience hands-on trainings, so an active attitude and a good level of English are required!  
    Register fast, spots are limited!  

     

    The invitation to register has been sent to the target audience of the event.

     

     

    Sweden

    The URBACT University is back! Hosted in Malmö, Sweden, on 28-30 August, this capacity-building event is dedicated to city representatives of the new URBACT Action Planning Networks.

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  • RESILIENT EUROPE

    Lead Partner : Rotterdam - Netherlands
    • Antwerp - Belgium
    • Bristol
    • Burgas - Bulgaria
    • Glasgow
    • Ioannina - Greece
    • Katowice - Poland
    • Malmö - Sweden
    • Potenza - Italy
    • Thessaloniki - Greece
    • Vejle - Denmark

    City of Rotterdam - Coolsingel 40, 3011 AD Rotterdam

    Summary

    Timeline

    Kick-off meeting in September (Katowice).

    Transnational meetings in March (Ioanina) and October (Malmo).

    Final event in March (Rotterdam).

    Becoming more resilient means that a city strives to enhance its ability to bounce back and grow even stronger and better in the face of the chronic stresses and acute shocks. As such, city resilience is a continuous challenge for individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and infrastructure systems to address current trends and future transitions. This Action Planning network looked at the challenges of achieving resilience in and of our cities in a comprehensive and holistic way, by applying the lessons from the innovative governance approach of Transition Management. This approach is a process-oriented and participatory steering that enables social learning through iterations between collective vision development and experimenting.

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  • France’s ÉcoQuartier label, an initiative to support communities for sustainable city planning

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    15/11/2022

    The concept of “écoquartier” - the term is a contraction of the two French words “quartier” and “écologique” (ecological neighbourhood) - was inspired by Northern European countries experiences of eco-districts.

    By creating a Label, delivered in four stages and according to urban sustainable development criteria, the French State wanted to push the approach one step further. The approach was successful in France, now also opened to other neighbourhoods and cities throughout the world.

    Eco-districts: historical background of the concept and first projects in Europe

    Articles


    The Aalborg Charter, signed in 1994 by the participants of the European conference on sustainable cities, reinforces the commitment of European cities to deploy local urban development programmes in communities.

    The first eco-districts appeared at the same period. Pioneers include two eco-districts built on converted industrial wasteland:
     

    And one district, in which former military barracks were converted:

    Challenges of social mix and of standardisation of buildings

    Although the concept of eco-districts is a success, criticisms have been levelled at this “first generation” of projects. They are mainly accused of not being sufficiently mixed and some sociologists talk of neoliberalism and neo-communitarism that some say are nothing more than the early stages of a gentrification of these neighbourhoods (Béal V., Charvolin F., Morel Journel C., 2011). The standardisation of buildings, which meets precise environmental standards so as to make them more energy efficient, is also condemned. It may have contributed to create a standardisation of “model neighbourhoods” (Boutaud B., 2009) where the characteristics of a place, its local culture and its heritage become invisible.

    The French Ecoquartier label translates urban sustainable development principles

    France started to use the concept in the 2000s. After the Law following the ‘Grenelle de l’Environnement’ (2007), the approach was adapted and expanded to any new urbanisation project in every French town. In 2008, the government launched the « Sustainable City Plan », which comprises, among others, the ÉcoQuartier approach.

    This approach became the ÉcoQuartier label. Today over 800 French communities are members of the ‘Club EcoQuartier’. The label guarantees the quality of the projects according to fundamental criteria (on technical, governance, economical and ‘well-being’ dynamics). The approach is flexible and it allows the ÉcoQuartier frame of reference to be put in context and adapted whatever the territory and type of city, regardless of its size, context, history and culture.

    Translating the urban sustainable development principles without standardising the neighbourhoods, this is what the 20 ÉcoQuartier commitments want to ensure. These 20 commitments also highlight citizen involvement (commitment 4: “Take into account the practices of users and the constraints of all stakeholders in the options of design and conception”) and social diversity (commitment 7: “Implement the conditions of social and intergenerational diversity, living well together and solidarity”).

    The ÉcoQuartier label is delivered in four stages:

    • label stage 1 - project stage
    • label stage 2 - under construction
    • label stage 3 - delivered
    • label stage 4 – confirmed

    This approach with stages allows communities to benefit from a number of resources, expert support, dedicated training, and regional exchange days with other communities and partners. It also gives national visibility to their projects. This will soon give also European visibility thanks to the Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities.

    A tool to spread sustainable development that has similarities with URBACT

    In order to spread sustainable development across France, the ÉcoQuartier approach uses similar methods to that of the URBACT programme. The two approaches share the same objective of bringing together multiple actors and offering the possibility of working together so as to create resilient territories capable of adapting to face climate challenges. The two approaches also offer support to territories that want to become more welcoming and dynamic.

    Mouans-Sartoux: a city committed to becoming more sustainable

    Mouans-Sartoux, located in the South of France, provides an example of the benefits of being involved in initiatives such as URBACT and Ecoquartier in order to scale up and improve policy making. Involved in the AGRI-URBAN URBACT network (which supports urban agriculture), the city has also been awarded the URBACT Good Practice label for its experience in “healthy and locally produced collective school catering. Mouans-Sartoux also eventually decided to invest in the ÉcoQuartier approach. Mouans-Sartoux signed the ÉcoQuartier Charter in 2017, and achieved so far the label – stage 1 - for its Plaines Chapelle neighbourhood.

    Exchanging with other cities: a virtuous loop for Strasbourg Euro-metropole

     

    Sharing one’s experience is a crucial asset that both URBACT and ÉcoQuartier approaches provide. Regional events, national days, trainings, seminars, etc. are organised and allow different actors to network. Together, they participate in the dissemination of good practices and the creation of a virtuous loop.

    Strasbourg Eurométropole has been committed for a long time to the preservation of biodiversity. 2014 winner of the ‘Capitale Française de la Biodiversité’ (national French award for Biodiversity) and “Best city for biodiversity 2017”, the municipality is also a member of the Club ÉcoQuartier, with the ÉcoQuartier du Danube (label stage 2) and the ÉcoQuartier de la Brasserie (label stage 3). Alain Jund, Vice-president of Strasbourg Eurométropole and Deputy Mayor of Strasbourg, chairs the ÉcoQuartier national committee. Strasbourg Eurométropole has joined the URBACT EGTC network (development of trans border strategies of urban development) and was labelled URBACT Good Practice city’ for its Biodiversity Charter. The city is also a member of the BOOSTINNO network on social innovation.

    Shared governance and citizens’ involvement

    The URBACT and EcoQuartier approaches promote shared governance. URBACT Local Groups gather key stakeholders from the public and private sectors. Similarly, the ÉcoQuartier approach involves a wide range of internal partners (with a requirement to ensure a transversal approach in the services) and external partners (actors of the project: inhabitants, users, managers, planners, promoters, economic operators, associations, institutional partners, social housing).

    Successful engagement of local community in the renovation of the city

    Les Mureaux, Ile de France

    The municipality of Les Mureaux, located in the Ile-de-France region, was awarded the ÉcoQuartier label – stage 4 in 2017. As a partner between 2009 and 2013 of the URBACT CASH network on affordable housing, the municipality mobilised both experts and associations for its urban renovation project. The city emphasised an integrated and participative approach, in particular for the design of the Parc Molière, based on a widespread consultation of inhabitants, future users and managers. The kitchen gardens, the play areas and the sports fields were also imagined with the inhabitants, within a system of support and awareness.

    Morne à l’Eau, Guadeloupe

     

    The willingness to include local residents in the preparation and implementation of projects is omnipresent at Morne-à-l’Eau, a municipality involved both in the ÉcoQuartier approach and in the URBACT programme (CityMobilNet network).

    Located on the Island of Guadeloupe, in the West Indies, Morne-à-l’Eau organised discussion workshops between local residents and the consultancy office in charge of the urban development project for the ÉcoQuartier Cœur de Grippon. This bottom-up work reassured local residents, answered their questions throughout the process and ensured a better undertaking of their expectations.

    The Label Eco-quartier assesses the engagement of the community with its stage 4 label award process

    The fourth and final stage of the Ecoquartier label assesses the successful involvement of local actors throughout the project. Three years after achieving the ÉcoQuartier label - stage 3, a visit of the neighbourhood and a meeting with local stakeholders are organised by experts mandated by the ministry. This self-assessment approach combining local residents and users of the territory is designed to constantly improve and recognise actions taken on a long-term basis by the community.

    In 2017, five ÉcoQuartiers were awarded the stage 4 label. A film shows the improvements on those four neighbourhoods, voicing out the experience of its residents.

    An international future for the French Ecoquartier Label?

    In 2014, at the World Urban Forum, a number of Latin American cities got in touch with the services of the French ministry for support to implement the ÉcoQuartier label in their countries. Already, in Japan, the Morino neighbourhood in the city of Funabashi was awarded the label stage 3 in 2016.

    Why not in Europe? Would EcoQuartier be a good topic for an URBACT Network?

    ---

    An article written by Delphine Gaudart and Sarah Petrovitch, Master student in Cultural and Political Geography, at Paris-Sorbonne University, having written a research paper on smart cities and currently trainee within the Ministry of Territories Cohesion in the unit animating the French EcoQuartier label.

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  • Can nature make your city climate-resilient?

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    15/11/2022

    Among the headlines of summer 2017: disastrous floods in the South of England, Istanbul and Berlin, extreme water scarcity in Rome, wild fires damaging homes on the Croatian coast, the Côte d'Azur and elsewhere… The magnitude and frequency of these and other events indicate that climate change is already a reality, and the impacts will be even bigger in the future. Yes, we need to reduce greenhouse gases to limit climate change, but equally urgent: we need to adapt to the remaining impacts. All cities, depending on their geographical position, are likely to experience prolonged and more intensive heatwaves or droughts, more frequent wild fires, coastal flooding, or an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall with the associated threat of urban flooding, river flooding or landslides. How can cities cope with these huge predicted impacts of climate change in the future, even when they are faced with tight budgets? Can nature be a solution?

    Malmö enjoys its green infrastructure solutions

    Articles

    Malmö, Sweden’s third largest city, has a long tradition of coping with excessive rainwater, going back long before climate change adaptation came on the agenda. The solutions have become even more important now with the projected increase in the number and intensity of extreme rainfall events. Just across the Øresund, Copenhagen was heavily flooded by an immense cloudburst in 2011. Damage costs mounted up to 800 million EUR. Such an extreme event could also hit Malmö. On a smaller scale, the neighbourhood of Augustenborg in Malmö already experienced frequent flooding from an overflowing drainage system in the 1980s and 1990s. Instead of extending the sewage system, the city experimented with green and blue infrastructure: vegetation and water. This solution comprises several kilometres of water channels and retention ponds, green roofs on new and retrofitted buildings, and green areas redesigned to better store and drain rain water or delay its discharge. Only excess water is led into the sewage system. As a result, problems with flooding have ceased. At the same time, the area has become much more attractive to its residents.

    The city has used this approach again in Western Harbour, a new residential area built on a former brownfield. It copes with rainwater mostly with the support of the many green roofs, green areas, water channels and retention basins. Water has become a playful feature in the urban design of the area, which was co-created with the future residents right from the planning phase. The design also helps mitigate climate change thanks to low-energy housing and the integrated generation of renewable energy. All of this has made the area extremely popular not just to its residents, but also to lots of other citizens and tourists who enjoy the nice seaside area. This long-term valuable experience and knowledge is an asset that Malmö shares with other cities as a member of the URBACT network Resilient Europe.

    Indeed, nature-based solutions can be a key tool for climate change adaptation. They comprise green infrastructure of all kinds but also solutions that allow natural processes, like floods, to happen without harm, e.g. by building floating or elevated houses. While Malmö is already enjoying the many benefits of green infrastructures in boosting quality of life, Hamburg and Copenhagen have recently calculated that they urgently need nature-based solutions to cope with climate change. They simply cannot extend the technical infrastructure – their sewage system – to the extent that it can cope with the amount of water expected under heavy cloudbursts. Costs for such a solution would be astronomically high, if feasible at all. Instead, green areas, green roofs, storage areas or streets as temporary waterways will take their share of water, storing, draining or delaying the discharge, thus relieving the sewage system. Calculations show that today’s solutions as we know them won’t do the job in Europe’s climate of the future, but a combination with nature-based solutions can work.

    Rotterdam opts for multi-functionality in its dense urban setting

     

    Rotterdam also has to cope increasingly with water – from a rising sea level, more torrential rain, and river flooding. There are not many places the water can go, as much of the area is low-lying and water needs to be pumped away. That makes the city very vulnerable and dependent on a functioning technical infrastructure. The city needs storing capacity to delay the discharge of water during heavy rainfall, but space is scarce in the Netherlands, where almost every square meter is used either for houses or for agri- and horticulture. In addition, as a dense city, Rotterdam aims to be both energy and transport efficient, and liveable and attractive. In its search for innovative solutions, Rotterdam came up with a range of ideas that are being explored further in the context of the Resilient Europe network. Some are swimming structures like the solar-powered floating pavilion in the Rijnhaven that copes with different water levels, others are roof-top farms or the famous water squares. Their special design offers multiple uses and benefits: Normally, these squares are dry and include playgrounds, sports facilities, nice places to meet or take a break, but under heavy rainfall they fill up with water and protect the surrounding from flooding, and are attractive in a different way.

    Nevertheless, such innovative ways to deal with climate challenges are not always easy to establish. While planners were enthusiastic, citizens were concerned: For example, would the area still be safe for their children? The planners had to find ways to overcome these barriers, build trust and convince. Meanwhile, the first water squares have been established, and they are highly appreciated.

    Combinations of green, grey and soft measures to make Vejle climate-resilient

     

    Water forms part of the identity of Vejle in Denmark too. It comes from all sides: the rising level of the Baltic Sea, combined with storm surges, elevates the risk of coastal flooding. And the rising number and intensity of heavy rainfall events brings more water from the sky and the streams. Important assets of the city, like the harbour, the city centre and some infrastructure are vulnerable, and the sewage system is not prepared for extremely high water loads. Current measures alone, like the soft measure of today’s well-functioning emergency responses, won’t suffice in the future.

    The city already uses green infrastructure in several areas. However, as great and effective as it is, green infrastructure alone cannot deal completely with future impacts in Vejle, in particular in the event of storm surges. Hence, the city is actively searching for new and innovative solutions combining green, grey and soft measures. Its district project ‘Fjordbyen’ will serve as a laboratory for climate change adaptation and flood control and explore how water can also be an asset for the quality of the area, not just a risk. Innovative solutions where water can be embraced can improve knowledge, economic growth and welfare for local people.

    A common factor for these, and similar examples of climate-resilient solutions in cities across the EU, is that they see climate change adaptation as part of a bigger concept. As well as collaborating in the Resilient Europe URBACT network, Rotterdam, Vejle, Glasgow, Bristol and Thessaloniki are also part of the global 100 Resilient Cities initiative. The concept comprises social cohesion, environment, health and wellbeing, economic prosperity, heritage and participation, and will enhance quality of life.

    Thessaloniki builds resilience on broad participation and collaboration

     

    In Thessaloniki, more than 40 organisations and 2,000 citizens from across the city have participated in the resilience strategy development. This ongoing co-creation process unleashes the potential for bottom up innovative solutions by residents and communities. Like Rotterdam, urban density is an issue for Thessaloniki with just 2.6m2 of green space per resident compared to the European average of 8-10m2. Nevertheless, the city sees green infrastructure as an important part of the solution. Hence, the city aims to increase the quality, effectiveness and number of benefits by redesigning the limited open space. This creates spaces for social interaction at the same time. It plans solutions such as permeable surfaces, rain gardens, green walls, but also supports urban agriculture in inner courtyards and pocket community gardens that, on top, come at low costs which is very important in times of austerity. These solutions not only involve residents in the design of their area, but encourage them to learn about agriculture and nutrition and may also help to integrate migrants and refugees with diverse agricultural traditions.

    For its valuable pieces of green infrastructure, the city developed the Adopt your Green Spot programme. It facilitates the active engagement of citizens in the maintenance of urban green by taking co-ownership of public green space while keeping public expenditures low. At the same time, this activity educates people, contributes to the local economy, and creates or fosters local communities and social cohesion. Participation, education, community, connectedness, integration and more; these are the important soft factors for building up long-term and effective resilience that technical measures alone cannot do. They are relevant for resilience towards any type of shock and change.

    Transforming cities with nature and innovation into thriving places – Bilbao inspires

     

    Bilbao, which recently became an URBACT Good Practice city, takes the holistic approach to adaptation a step further. Some decades ago, the city learned painfully that the business-as-usual way wouldn’t lead them out of their deep economic crisis. The city started the process towards a broadly integrated urban development strategy to cope with the complexity of its urban challenges. That continuous process is still ongoing. Over the last 30 years, Bilbao has undertaken a massive transformation. Interventions like the iconic Guggenheim museum, the clean-up of the river, new infrastructures, internationalisation, a focus on excellent design, nice parks and other urban greens, as well as the restoration of the historic centre, reinvented the city that is thriving very well now. In this tradition, the city has recently started adaptation activities that shall contribute to creating a flourishing, climate-resilient city that offers a high quality of life. One example is the regeneration of the Zorrotzaure district, a currently degraded, flood-prone industrial peninsula. A combination of grey and green measures of building and urban design will make it flood-proof and highly attractive as well, thus adding to Bilbao’s overall appearance of a modern, liveable and strong city.

    The cities here present feasible approaches that turned the need for making their city climate-resilient into an opportunity to boost quality of life and transform them into enjoyable and thriving places. The process to get there includes many of the ingredients already used in other urban regeneration and development processes, among them broad participation, good governance, and collaboration across sectors and stakeholders. The examples show that having a great, broadly accepted vision of the future, dedication and commitment to the task, as well as plenty of stamina, are important for a successful transformation process. Nature-based solutions have proved to be a key tool: attractive and multi-functional at reasonable costs, they are a valuable asset that every city can use.

    Birgit Georgi

    ***

    Photo 2: Rotterdam ©Rick Ligthelm
            
    Photo 3: Vejle Fjorbyen ©Finn Byrum
              
    Photo 4: Thessaloniki ©Municipality of Thessaloniki
             
    Photo 5: Bilbao ©Municipality of Bilbao

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